This essay says that yahoo groups and other Internet groups have given us the opportunity to express who we are in writing and in the process enabled folks to learn about who we are in fact, not who we pretend to be. It then focused on Igbos and said that their writings on yahoo groups have enabled other people to come to know who they are, as opposed to who they say that theyare. The essay thanks the inventors of these Internet groups for offering us the opportunity to show the world who we are. The inventors are stimulating a revolution in selfand group revelation. This paper is basically a summary of the writer’s perception of Igbos, and with it he moves on, his task is performed; it is now left to Igbos to learn and change or keep on doing what they have always done and gotten the same results while asking for different results (which is what insanity is).
Why We Must Thank 'Yahoo! Groups'
(Summary of my Perception of Igbos)
Ozodi Thomas Osuji
Human beings seek revolutions but live through revolutions without recognizing that they are living through them. One revolution is the invention of yahoo groups and other Internet groups.The folks who invented these devices and made them free for the public have done more to change the world than self-proclaimed revolutionaries like Karl Marx and Frederick Engle did. Fascist and socialist revolutionaries talk about transforming the world to what Aldous Huxley called a brave new world but folks like Mr. Yang, the inventor of yahoo, who did not see themselves as revolutionaries actually changed the world.
By offering the world free forums at which folks anonymously express their feelings and beliefs the inventors of these forums have helped people to educate themselves about who they are as individuals and groups. I doubt that any of us would have learned the much we now know about other persons andgroups if we did not go to the forums they write on and read what they wrote.
Writing is an interesting business. When the individual believes that he is writing about other people, unbeknown to him, he reveals more about who he is than those he presumably is writing about. For example, any one reading my writings learnssomething about me as well as the subjects I write on. We project ourselves to whatever we write on. If you want to understand a person read what he wrote even if the subject is totally removed from him.
Until I joined Nigerian Internet forums I did not know much about the various Nigerian ethnic groups. My life until then was not centered on Nigerian ethnic groups. In so far that I came into contact with anyof them I simply assumed that I was relating to an African and left it at that.
Immediately upon exposure to Nigerian Internet groups, I was struck by the fact that individuals from different ethnic groups wrote differently;they represented their ethnic philosophies and idiosyncrasies in their writings. Ethnic Nigerians project their people’s world views into what they write!
Of course, there are individualities in what folks write but that notwithstanding you could tell if something is written by a Hausa man or Yoruba man, Edo man, Ijaw man, Efik man and Igbo man. This is amazing; so, I paid closer attention to what folks wrote; perhaps, I could get to learn about the various ethnic groups by reading their writings?
Whereas there are individual differences yet from their writings you infer certain stereotypical aspects of the various Nigerian groups. Yoruba’s are very tactful and diplomatic; generally, they are the most Western educated Nigerians; they are a pleasure to read (Yorubas are beginning to produceworld class scholars).
The Edo person is dignified; he has quiet pride in his people’shistory and culture; he is mature in emotional outlook.
If the Ijaw is in a profession he shows technical understanding of his profession.
The Efik is very civilized; he is quiet and minds his business (until you step on him and he fights you with unforgiving ferocity…despite Igbos self-deceptions about their unity with the Efik, the Efik has not forgiven them for removing Professor Eyo Ita from the premiership of Eastern Nigeria and replacing him with an Igbo, Nnamdi Azikiwe; based on that and other incidences the Efik does not want close political association with Igbos; many deluded Igbos seem to think that Efiks would be part of their dreamed for Biafra Eldorado).
The Hausa accepted Islamic culture and lives by it; in my judgment he is probably a better Muslim than Saudi Arabians! Heis willing to fight and die if Islam and its founderarebesmirched.
The Igbo is the most problematic Nigerian ethnic group! He is like the Jew in Europe; Europe had a Jewish problem and sought ways to solve it and Hitler thought that he found a final solution to the Jewish problem:get rid of them all. Remove the irritating Jew or, as Adolf Hitler said in his book, Mein Kampf, kill the vermin.
(Some Nigerians actually contemplate a similar solution to the Igbo problem. They are wrong; we do not need to kill any one; we just have to understand each other and from that understanding relate to each other realistically. My writings on Igbos are meant to show them as they are seen by other persons so that they make necessary changes in their irritating character structures hence relate better to their fellow Nigerians.)
Igbos present a unique problem that many Nigerians do not know how to solve it. I myself, though nominally Igbo, find Igbos extremely irritating. I relate to Igbos from a reasonable distance for if you come close to them they burn you! They say he who deals with the devil must carry a long pole.
Reading the submissions by the Igbo members of the various Nigerian Internet groups, I initiallywished that Igbos were banned from submitting their abusive materials to these Internet groups. Their abusive and arrogant language annoyed me. They seemed to suffer from group insanity; many of them wrote as if they areout-rightly, not figuratively,crazy. I either deleted what they wrote or read it to feel annoyed during the rest of that day.
To keep my sanity I desisted from exposing myself to stuff written by grandiosely deluded Igbos, persons who manifest the entire symptoms of paranoia but do not know that they are deluded (it is paranoid, delusion disorder, to consider one’s selfsuperior to other human beings but many Igbos proudly proclaim their superiority to other Nigerians).
Life is too short so one does not have to disturb ones emotional equilibrium by reading the gibberish written by infantile and or insane persons.
However, upon prolonged reflection over this issue, it occurred to me that the white man has done it again! He has given people a means of expressing their inherent psychopathologies for the rest of the world to read. The white man has given us a forum at which we show who we are and if we are mentally disturbed show it.
Instead of asking that certain people be banned from using Nigerian Internet groups,I realized that what needed to be done is encourage many other Nigerians to join these groups. Nigerians should come and write their stuff and in the process exhibit themselves so that the rest of us would come to know who they are, their strengths and weaknesses, and for those interested in individual and group psychopathologies their mental disorders.
You can tell that a piece is written byan Igbo when it appears boastful. The Igbo is boastful; he is full of braggadocio. He fancies himself superior to other persons. Worse, he wants you, the person he imagines that he is superior to,to accept his deluded self-assessment. If you humor him and go along with him and treat him as if he is a superior person he feels fine and gets along with you. If you call his bluff and tell him that he is a nakedemperor pretending to be robed in diadem he feels angry at you.
Since he claims that his group is the most creative in the world, you remind him that his people did not have social organizations beyond village and small town, did not have Igbo wide political organizations (anthropologists call them primitive stateless folk), did not invent writing until the white man gave him one a hundred years ago, did not invent the wheel hence had to carry his loads on his head, and generally remind him that he did not have any of the indices of civilization. Told this evident reality he feels angry and verbally abuses you.
For the Igbo to get along with you, you must collude with him and tell him what he wants to hear, that he is the king of the hill.
Since his understanding of English is very limited, when he is angry he reverts to writing in Engliigbo, aka Onitsha English; he throws at you whatever big words (improperly employed) he thinks would hurt your pride. His full intention is to humiliate you (he believes that it is possible to humiliate people; what he believes is possible and does to folk must be done to him; he must be humiliated, as I am doing here).
When the Igbos pride is pricked, he experiences narcissistic injury and shows narcissistic rage. He would exhibit such temper tantrum that you would think that he is developmentally arrested (is under ten years old).The goal of his anger is to reestablish his fancied superiority in your eyes and get you to see yourself as inferior to him! He is like a terrorist and wants to intimidate you, to arouse fear in you and out of fear of the harm he could cause you if you do not see him as he wants to be seen you accept his paranoid false self- concept.
Poor fellow, his intemperate rage actually causes other people to see him as an inferior human being (if there is such a person…no human being is inferior or superior; inferiority and superiority are delusions; the reality is that all human beings are equal).
If you listened to Igbos talk you would think that they are the most intelligent human beings on planet earth. Then you do a little research on their actual performance on intelligence matters and you discover that they do not do better than their neighbors.
Generally, black folks, Africans included, have the same average IQ scores (on standard intelligence scales, such as Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, WAIS, Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, WISC, and Stanford –Benet Intelligence scales). Their average intelligence is about 85 (some say that it is as low as 70…70 is the mark of mental retardation!).
White folks average IQ is about 100. Asian folks average IQ is about 115. Persons with IQ of 118-130 are considered above average; persons with IQ of 132 and above are considered superior. Persons with IQ of 140 and above are considered genius. About two percent of the human population has superior IQ. In every generation there are a handful of geniuses.
Group intelligence patterns are reflected on how members of the various groups score on scholastic aptitude tests (SAT). Generally, the average black person, Africans included scores 850; white folks score about 1150 and Asians score about 1250 (out of possible 1600 points).
If you are a teacher at our universities you quickly find out that group members’scores on your tests reflect their pattern of intelligence: Asian students are most likely to make As, White students Bs and Africans and black folks Cs (or worse) grades.
(These figures are general; there are exceptions to every general rule; there are very smart black folks who do well at schools but generally they are very few. As of today, only a few black students can be admitted to America’s top twenty five universities on merit; in so far thatthey are there it is almost always on some kind of affirmative action program that overlooks their actual poor performance at high schools and aptitude tests. If you are in doubt contact the admission officers at America’s top universities: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Cornel, Stanford, Brown, Dartmouth, Chicago, Berkeley, UCLA,USC, and U. Pennsylvania, U. Michigan, U. Minnesota, U. Wisconsin, U. Virginia, Duke, Georgetown and a few others. America has about 3000 four year universities and two year colleges; every year they are ranked based on their academic rigor.)
These are the facts on the ground. If so how exactly did Igbos come to believe that they are superior persons? There is no evidence of superiority in their actual performance in anything!
In so far that they believe in their superiority the belief is in what there is no evidence supporting it. That is to say that their claims of group superiority are delusional, fictional, not based on demonstrated facts.
When you are around them they try to browbeat you into believing that they are Nietzsche’s supermen. When you listen to what comes out of their boastful mouths you would think that they are superior folk.
Generally, Igbos act as if they are incapable of individual thinking. If one of their lead dogs says something, even if what he says is palpably wrong, the rest of them would join in and say that what he said is true.
Igbos do not think individually but go along with their leaders mistakes and in the process repeat those mistakes over and over, again. They find it difficult to criticize their leaders (hence they adored their mediocre leaders, such as Nnamdi Azikiwe and Emeka Ojukwu).
Yet they fancy themselves individualists! Individualists indeed! In the forums that I belonged to you see most of them going along with those they perceive as their leaders, even if what those folks say is brain dead, even insane. These people are an amazing study in group think.
The sad part of it all is that no matter the feedback you give to these people they would not listen and try to change. They would always say that the trouble is with the messenger, not them. They suddenly become jungle psychologists and diagnose you as self-hating, or see you as a person who hates them (if you criticize them you must hate them; if you do not admire primitive behaviors you must hate yourself). Lately, some of them would say that you are seeking their attention by writing about them; that you are a nonentity and writing about them makes you feel alive!(Seeing what you are doing in that light enables them to retain their grandiose self-concepts for they must be important for folks to write about them.)
Seek their attention? Who are they that one needs to get their attention? From my perspective they are primitive. One does not seek the attention of a primitive people. Feel existent from commenting on the behavior of a bunch of emotionally retarded children? No, one wants to help them become adults in emotional make up. (But did they ask me to help them grow up? No; nevertheless, it is my function to do so for I cannot stand seeing them do what brings their massacres.)
It will be a day when one runs into an Igbo who is humble and does not see his self as god’s special creation. To the rest of the world, especially to Hindu and Buddhist Asians, to be mature is to be humble and self-effacing. But to Igbos to be an adult, they think, is to seem very important (and since in actual fact they are not important pretend it).
Their grandiosity is now well known to all Nigerians and folks merely smile when they see Igbos boast. Vanity, your name is Igbo!
Honestly, why is it difficult for Igbos to realize that human beings think that you are wise and mature if you are humble? Why do they think that they have to put on airs of having knowledge they do not have or importance that they do not have?
Let it be stated that if you are starving an Igbo is most likely tosee your starvation as indication that you are nobody. He would not help you; indeed, he would look for ways to steal from you whatever goods you have.
From a humanitarian point of view they are useless; their vaunted wealth is the wealth of Satan himself. If indeed they are rich they ought to use their money to help the needy among them. Bill Gates made over $90 billion dollars and donated most of it to a foundation to give to charity. That is how human beings behave.
The Biafran war lord conscripted fourteen year olds into his boy army to fight for his ego’s prestige. When defeated he ran away, a bloody coward. Then he came home to ask the Nigerian government to pay him pension as a Lt Colonel in the Nigerian army and was so paid (during the war he had promoted himself to general). He did not fight to have his abandoned soldiers also paid. The man was reportedly wealthy but did not use his wealth to establish a foundation to help the wounded boy soldiers who were misled by his ego into fighting for his vanity.
These people are as hardhearted as stone; it is doubtful that they have morality and social interest in their behavior; they are totally self-centered and selfish.
In one- on- one relationship they are always looking for ways to stiff you, to dupe you. When they have cheated you, like amoral thieves, they laugh at you and call you mumu or mugu, a simpleton that is easily cheated. Doing the right thing for the sake of it is not part of their psychological structure.
They are unprincipled and opportunistic and will do anything to get a penny from folk. What exactly is the matter with these people? Can’t they see that they come across as contemptible and despicable? Don’t they realize that human beings admire and respect givers not takers?
Can any rational person actually trust an Igbo’s good will and expect him to do the right thing? Most people dealing with them expect them to cheat and steal. Is this a good reputation to have or do they think that just denying what most people see them as has deceived people into seeing them differently?
I would not have come to know Igbos and other Nigerians if they were not given the opportunity to come to yahoo groupsand write something for the rest of us to read. Therefore, I thank Mr. Yang for giving us yahoo groups from which we learn about ourselves and other persons.
(Imagine what would have happened if Mr. Yang was Igbo instead of Chinese. He would have claimed that he is the inventor of the Internet, as Mr. Phillip Emeagwali claimed to be just because in graduate school he won a prize for solving a computer related math equation. Igbos would have tooted their horns and told the world that it is evidence of their superiority. These people feel totally inferior and seize on whatever makes them seem worthwhile to tell us that they are superior folk. They are classic Adlerian neurotics compensating with false superiority over their underlying sense of inferiority.)
A little over 100 years ago Igbos were running around their jungle environment, capturing their people and selling them into slavery. That is true; these “superior people” were capturing and selling their brothers and sisters into slavery. The mere thought that folks could do such a dastardly thing makes our minds shudder. But they did it.
So, whose fault was it that they committed that crime against God and man? They told themselves that it was not their fault. They employed the ego defense mechanism of rationalization to say that it was the fault of the white man whom they never saw while selling their people to him. With such infantile reasoning their conscience felt fine.
As we all know, those who over use rationalization keep on using it. Thus, these “innocent sellers of people” today are “innocent kidnappers of their people”, holding them hostage until ransom money is paid to them before they are released.
Of course it is not their fault! How could anything ever be their fault? You see, they are poor and have to eat and eating justifies kidnapping their people.If rationalization ego defense is not enough they say that other Nigerians prevent them from developing their land, and that they do not have employment and must provide for themselves by kidnapping folks for money.
Antisocial personalities, criminals have infinite justifications for their sociopathic behavior. Nothing is ever their fault.
(Realistic societies do not listen to the endless excuses that psychopaths befuddle their minds with to justify doing the incredible; they arrest, try and throw them into jails, lock them up and throw away the keys. Somebody has toexercise draconian power over Igbos and punish them for the crimes they have been committing wherever they are allowed to subsist.)
For some reasons, Igbosdo not like to live in their land. They are always running to other people’s lands to go live. Thus, today there are probably as many of them in other parts of Nigeria as are in Igbo land. While in other peoples lands, instead of feeling like grateful strangers they feel superior to those who graciously allowed them to come live with them. When the owners of the land get tired of being psychologically abused they act out and kill some of them and chase the rest of them out. They streak back to their god forsaken home, telling the world that they are innocent victims.
But why not stay in their land, till and husband it? No, they soon run to other people’s lands and the pattern is repeated.
As we talk they are running to the white man’s land and the white man is getting to know them and, sooner or later, will chase them out. All that the white man needs to do is give them jobs and instead of identifying with the man’s business they steal from it and in time destroy it. They always run down whatever business they are brought into.
Sooner or later, the white man would pass immigration laws stopping them from coming to America etc.; at that point they would scream racism.
But they should remember that white conservatives could care less what you called them as long as they got rid of you (or used you as source of cheap labor).You do not play on white conservatives guilt and manipulate it to get them to help you, as you do with white liberals who are always feeling guilty for other peoples plight.
(Africans took advantage of liberal guilt to say that only white folks were responsible for slavery; that denial and projection of their African guilt may seem good but look at what it has done in Africa: Africans do not take responsibility for managing their economy, they steal from their people so that their house is fallen down; the first lesson in leadership is to accept total responsibility for your organization and society.)
You would think that these people would learn from their sorry history and behave differently. No, instead, they would continue seeing themselves as innocent victims that the rest of the world does bad things to. They never learn that folks sleep on beds they made. If you make beds of thorn your skin is pierced.
Some do-gooders keep asking them to mend their evil ways but instead of thanking them they verbally abuse them (the function of truth Sayers is to keep stating the truth until a sinful world listen and change its evil behaviors).
Before I Was exposed to Nigerian Internet groups I had bought into the illusion that Igbos are supermen. Igbos successfully marketed themselves as somehow superior to other people and most of us accepted that delusion of theirs. Then I began reading what supermen wrote and could not believe my own eyes. These people are deluded (follies adieu).
And these are the people who presented themselves as better than other people? With time I assessed them a little more objectively. They are, at least, two thousand years behind the West in every aspect of civilization. They are a primitive people, period. To say anything otherwise is to deceive one’s self and I am not in the business of deceiving myself. I am a chap that looks reality in the face, good or bad, and deal with it. Thus, I accept that Igbos are way behind the other races of mankind and that with great effort we can bring them to where the West is in five hundred years. I do not expect any miracles from life; I do not permit myself to be hijacked by their self-delusions presented as facts; I deal with them as I see them, primitive folk.
Their so-called intellectuals are currently writing pseudo history of them. They did not have writing until they encountered the West in the late nineteenth century. The first batch of literate Igbos did not come to the scene until the 1930s. Since they do not have written history it is very difficult to ascertain what happened in their world two hundred years ago. Yet their pseudo intellectuals write fiction of what they think that their society was like two thousand years ago! This is made up history, make belief history, fiction, and fantasy, imaginary stuff, wished for state of history but not reality. No human mind can remember something that was not written down that took place thousands of years ago.
When the dust settles we shall learn that two thousand years ago there probably was no such thing as Igbo people. Perhaps, what existed was one tribe occupying the lower Niger. The various tribes in the area probably separated from it. Yoruba, Igbo, Edo, Ijaw etc. were all probably part of that Pan-Negro tribe. And this probably accounts for the relatedness of these tribes languages; most southern Nigerian tribes came from one tribe (this is heuristic, not statement of fact).
In Igbo village’s people are always fighting over pieces of lands. Often they hack each other to death because of these quarrels over who owns a little morefeet of land than others.
As a proud, arrogant people each of them wants to win and have others lose. Thus, when their little egos are pricked they go to war with each other, killing their people or capturing and selling them into slavery. They cannot put their egos aside and put their heads together and try to solve problems amicably.
Life is always a zero sum game with them: I win and you lose. Since no one likes to lose, for losing means deflated egos they must therefore always fight each other. These people have not learned that whereas pride is a good motivator to human accomplishments that like everything in life it is a double edged sward. Pride makes people vain and narcissistic so that they are blinded to objective reality.
Talking about narcissism the Igbo generally falls into three basic personality types: narcissistic personality, anti-social personality and or paranoid personality.
Briefly, the paranoid personality denied his real self for he sees it as weak and inadequate and invents a grandiose (big) self and pretends to be it. He wears a mask of existential importance and wants other people to collude with him and see him as important. If he feels belittled and demeaned he feels angry at the person he thinks is degrading him. He is always fighting with people; he is suspicious and does not trust anyone.
The anti-social personality has poor social conscience and often takes what does not belong to him and does not feel guilt or remorse from such anti-social behavior. In this anti-social light these people sold their people and do not feel guilty from that existential crime; like the criminal they are full of excuses why they did it and still do criminal things; they blame others for their behaviors and its outcomes.
The narcissist thinks that he is better than other people, feels superior and wants other people to admire him because he is supposedly superior to them. He easily uses other people to get what he wants and discards them without feeling like he used them. (My dear reader evaluate the Igbos you know and see if they do not fall into these broad categories.)
These people are basically socially functioning personality disordered persons and, worse, do not know it. They need their writers to explore the nature of the human personality, its well-functioning aspects and the disordered aspects of it so that as their children grow up they learn about their personality types and get a handle on them and avoid becoming the disordered persons they currently are.
In the past social scientists had to go to their subjects abode to learn about them. Anthropologists went to primitive societies to learn about their cultures; sociologists studied the cultures of urban dwellers, psychologists studied individual behaviors and political scientists studied groups’ political behaviors. These days we no longer have to go do field studies; all we need to do is find a group that we want to study on Yahoo groups and read what their members write and we learn all about their members individual and social behaviors.
Regarding Igbos, not one of these people have made contribution to science, to physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, economics, government, to any area of knowledge. Yet if you listened to them talk you would think that you are talking to intellectual superstars. They are such superstar that children go through school without encountering an Igbo name in their science text books!
These people should be ashamed and hide under rocks instead of filling the air with empty noise of their imaginary accomplishments.
This is not to say that they are not intelligent; of course they are intelligent; as everywhere some of them are above average in intelligence, some even are gifted whereas the mass of them are as cattle.Their past was darkness without any light in it, no science, and not even written history!
There is always hope in the present and future. They have only been exposed to Western science and technology for a little over a hundred years. That is not exactly sufficient time for them to have understood the spirit of the West (which is done only by those who have grappled with Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Pascal, Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Nietzsche, Bergson, James and others).
Let us hope that when they have truly understood science(understood the superstars of science such as Democritus, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Huygens, Tyco Brahe, Newton, Boyle, Laplace, Lavoisier, Dalton, Thomas Young, Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, J.J. Thomson, Boltzmann, Becquerel, Rontgen, The Curies, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Neils Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, Dirac, Chadwick, Fermi, Friedman, Lemaitre, Hubble, Leise Meitner, Strassman, Otto Hahn, Gamow, Fred Hoyle, Jennings, Mendel, Alexander Fleming, Francis Crick, James Watson, Wheeler, Murray Gell-Mann, John Bell, Hugh Everett, Alan Aspect, Alan Goth and other seminal contributors to science) that they would make some significant contributions to it.
Let me end on a realistic note. One must first learn to walk before one can run; a people must first learn the mode of civilization that now confronts them before they can effectively operate in it. Igbos, Nigerians and Africans are now thrust into Western civilization. They did not evolve this civilization like the people of Europe did. They were, at least, two thousand years behind Europe in material culture before they came into contact with Europeans. One would expect them to take, at least, five hundred years to learn the new culture they are now exposed to.
In my judgment at best in three hundred years (in the 2300s), Igbos, Nigerians and Africans would have learned the rules of the game and would be welcomed into the human race and begin acting like other human beings. In the meantime we have to do our best to make sure that they keep learning and not expect them to do what the other races are doing.
If at present we can stem Igbos, Nigerians tendency to corruption (they steal as if it is not a big deal) we would begin to lay the infrastructure of civilization in their world. That probably is the best we can do in this generation. They steal too much so that some racist whites say that criminality is in their genes.
(This negative perception makes them feel demeaned. Well, if you do not want people to see you as a criminal do not engage in antisocial behavior.)
If we can teach these people pro-social behaviors and they begin working towards operating in civil society that is probably the most that we can do at this time in their social evolution. They are simply too backward to be able to operate the type of modern scientific, technological civilization we find in Europe and North America.
PS: Since I am Igbo the question that comes up is why an Igbo would desecrate his people. I will tell you why. I see Igbos with their heads swollen with false pride and out of that vanity insult folks around them. Folks around them take it for a while and then feel angry at them, attackand sometimes kill some of them. I do not want Igbos to be attacked and or killed. To prevent Igbos being harmed, their egos must be shrunk to humble levels; Igbos have to behave respectfully towards their Nigerian neighbors. My motivation is to humble Igbos, make them mature and respectful of their fellow Nigerians. It is in mutual respect that human beings find peace. Arrogance and putting folks down lead to conflict and war.
Ozodi Thomas Osuji
December 5, 2012