PDA

View Full Version : [Historical Excursion] Who are the Nupes?



Big-K
Feb 6, 2010, 04:26 PM
Many of us don't understand our own history as well as we should. I'm hoping these historical excursions will help.

This particular thread is annex to an interesting discussion on how Yorubas in Kogi and Kwara came to be absorbed into Northen Nigeria. I mentioned on that thread that to get a good understanding, we must understand the Nupe people, their wars and subjugation of the peoples of the lower Niger. So on this thread, I will be posting materials that may help understand the Nupe people.

Please note that this series will help understanding and its not meant to be an ethnic baiting discussion.

Resources:


Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam by Paul Lovejoy
Read Chapter 4 The Southward Campaigns of Nupe in the Lower Niger Valley Femi J. Kolapo
Read at Google here:http://books.google.com/books?id=T4w3xWn1yGAC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=Femi+J+Kolapo+The+Southward+Campaigns&source=bl&ots=zAcHtoG5V0&sig=CxnDhVc2EoNmrf-4C1xJzlGUrsY&hl=en&ei=06RtS53YEonENpDuhcwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Femi%20J%20Kolapo%20The%20Southward%20Campaigns&f=false


The Fulani Empire of Sokoto: H.A.S. Johnston.
Chapter Thirteen: The Jihad in Nupe and Ilorin
http://www.amanaonline.com/Sokoto/sokoto_13.htm


Kolapo, Femi James, "The Dynamics of Early 19th Century Nupe Wars." In the Proceeding of the Conference on War and Society in Africa held at the Military. History Department, Faculty of Military Science, University of
Stellenbosch (Military Academy) Saldanha, South Africa. September 2001.


Facebook Discussion: THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF NUPE PEOPLE
http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=6588136193&topic=4163


More to come

Big-K
Feb 6, 2010, 04:29 PM
http://www.amanaonline.com/Sokoto/sokoto_13.htm

H.A.S. Johnston: The Fulani Empire of Sokoto
Chapter Thirteen: The Jihad in Nupe and Ilorin


In the Hausa States, as we have already seen, the Fulani were able to establish their authority by rapidly overthrowing the old ruling classes and then taking over from them the established machinery of government. Among the pagan tribes of Adamawa and Bauchi they faced a different problem which took a longer time to solve. In Nupe and llorin the problems were different again and their solution even more protracted. The acquisition of these areas, which fell in the period following the death of Shehu, therefore represented the third phase in the expansion of the Empire. It was one, moreover, which was associated much more closely with Gwandu than with Sokoto.

Nupe

The Nupes are quite distinct from the Hausas and it is not clear why they were ever grouped among the Banza Bakwai. They speak a language of their own 1 and have never been much penetrated by emigration from Hausaland. Their links with the Hausa States in fact consisted in little more than proximity and a similar system of government by a Chief and aristocracy.

So far as is known the Nupes have always lived around the confluence of the Niger and Kaduna Rivers. Before the fifteenth century, however, they had no state of their own but were vassals of the Igalas, who were themselves subject to Benin and whose capital, Idah, was a hundred and fifty miles farther down the Niger. Like the Hausas, they have preserved a legend which attributes the creation of their kingdom to a half-mythical, half-historical founder or culture-hero 2.

According to this legend a son of the Atta or Chief of Igala went on a hunting expedition to the country of the Nupes. There he fell in love with the daughter of a local chieftain and lived with her for a time. She was pregnant when he left her to return to Idah and he presented her with a charm and a ring to give to their child when it was born. The child proved to be a boy and was called Tsoede or, in the Hausa version, Edegi. When he grew up he was sent to Igala as a slave, part of the tribute which the Nupes had to pay every year, and there, because of his ring, he was recognized by his father who in the meantime had himself become Atta 3.

The Atta, the legend goes on, took Tsoede into his household and showed him the same favour as his other sons. This evoked the jealousy of his Igala half-brothers. At length, when the Atta had grown old and felt the approach of death, he bestowed the chieftaincy of Nupe on Tsoede and presented him with all the insignia of office. When his half-brothers got wind of this, they pursued him, meaning to kill him, but he eluded them and reached home in safety. There he assumed the title of Etsu Nupe and in about 1530, having subdued the whole country and repudiated his allegiance to Idah, he became the founder of an independent dynasty. Later he built the town of Gbara, on the Kaduna River, which was to remain the capital until the advent of the Fulani three centuries later 4.

While the legend has probably been embellished with the passage of time, as such myths usually are, the external evidence shows that there is nothing inherently improbable in it. There was certainly contact between Nupe and lgala, and it is significant that the legend of Tsoede has survived in lgala as well as in Nupe. As for the date, there is a good measure of agreement between different genealogies on the early sixteenth century.

In any case, whatever its content of historical truth, the legend was of social significance because it was treasured by the Nupe people and the general knowledge and acceptance of it was one of the foundations of the political and cultural unity which they gradually evolved 5.
There is some uncertainty about when Islam first became established in Nupe. One tradition is that the fifteenth Etsu, Jibirin, who lived in the eighteenth century, was the first Moslem of his line 6. Against this, however, is the fact that a number of Jibirin's predecessors bore Moslem names 7. On balance it seems probable that, even if it did not at first gain much ground, Islam took root at some time during the seventeenth century.

The date when the Fulani first reached Nupe is also unknown. As the country provides good grazing in the dry season but is unhealthy for cattle during the rains because of the prevalence at that season of the tsetse fly, the probability is that semi-nomadic pastoralists made their appearance at a very early stage, but that settlement did not take place till much later and then only on a small scale. Even by the time of the jihad,one estimate puts the total number of Fulani as low as 1,000-1,500 8.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century there appeared on the scene a Fulani called Mallam Dendo. He was a member of the Toronkawa Clan and until then his home had been in Kebbi. He was a scholar, not a pastoralist, and he seems to have gone to Nupe as a preacher and missionary of Islam and to have established himself, even before the jihad, as a man of influence.

It so happened that at this time the Nupes were divided into two camps by a dispute about the succession. One pretender, Jimada, ruled the eastern part of the kingdom from the old capital at Gbara on the Kaduna River, while the other, Majiya, ruled the west from the new town of Raba which he had built for himself on the Niger. This schism gave the Fulani, despite their small numbers, an opportunity of playing a decisive part 9.

At the start, probably around the turn of the century and before the outbreak of the jihad, Mallam Dendo and his supporters allied themselves to Majiya in Raba. With the help of his Fulani allies Majiya defeated and killed Jimada and soon afterwards made himself master of all Nupe 10.

With Majiya's triumph Mallam Dendo became more influential than ever and a fresh wave of Fulani came to Raba to enter his service. After a time, however, Majiya seems to have grown jealous of Mallam Dendo's growing authority. At any rate there was a serious quarrel and all the Fulani were forced to flee 11.

After being driven out of Raba, Mallam Dendo crossed the Niger and took refuge with another Fulani, Mallam Alimi, who had become influential in Ilorin. From there he espoused the cause of the Nupe faction which he had earlier helped to defeat. Its leader was now Idirisu, the son of Majiya's dead rival Jimada. Majiya reacted to this move by taking an army against Mallam Dendo and Idirisu, but in the ensuing battle, which took place near florin, he was decisively defeated, and compelled to fall back upon Raba 12.

There is little doubt that Mallam Dendo now sought and received reinforcements from Shehu. We know, at any rate, that in 1810, when the war with Gobir was over and the city of Sokoto was being built, an expedition was sent to Nupe under Aliyu Jaidu and that it captured many towns 13. This force seems to have helped Mallam Dendo to drive Majiya out of Raba and install himself there as Sarkin Fillani.

From then until his death Mallam Dendo, though not an Emir or even the acknowledged ruler of a unified state, was the most powerful man in Nupe. His new ally Idirisa assumed the title of Etsu Nupe, it is true, but continued to live on the south bank of the Niger and was, in fact, no more than a puppet ruler. As for Majiya, he had to retire into banishment in the north. From Raba, Mallam Dendo was able to play them off against one another and so dominate them both 14.

This balance of power lasted for twenty years, but in the end, in about 1830, Idirisu tired of his impotence and rebelled against Mallam Dendo's authority. He was defeated and killed, however, and Mallam Dendo then made Majiya the puppet ruler of Nupe in his place while retaining the real power in his own hands 15.

Before he died Mallam Dendo is said to have advised his sons to follow in his own footsteps and to be content with the reality of power without hankering after its trappings. On his death in 1833 he was succeeded as Sarkin Fillani by his son Usuman Zaki, whose mother had been a Fulani and who therefore had no Nupe blood in him. Soon afterwards Majiya also died and was similarly succeeded by his son Tsado. Two years later Tsado rose against the Fulani, but was defeated and forced to flee 16.

After this victory Usuman Zaki, oblivious of his father's advice, took over the regalia of the kingdom and himself assumed the title of Etsu Nupe. These events, which took place in 1836, marked the extinction of the old Nupe dynasty and the birth of a new Emirate in the Fulani Empire.

To rule his Emirate, Usuman Zaki introduced the Ajele system and tried to govern the Nupes through Fulani and Hausa deputies. This alien regime proved so unpopular, however, that it soon provoked a new revolt and at the same time introduced a fresh complication into the already tangled skein of Nupe affairs 17.

Among Usuman Zaki's brothers there was one, Masaba, who had a Nupe mother. Masaba had quarrelled with Usuman Zaki soon after their father's death and had left the capital for the countryside. There he had begun to intrigue against his brother and to propagate the idea that, as he himself was half Nupe by birth and furthermore had been brought up as a Nupe, he was the one who should be Emir rather than the alien Usuman Zaki 18.

asaba and Tsado, the deposed puppet, were companions in mischief and natural allies. Moreover, the unpopularity of Usuman Zaki's deputies and the unrest that they provoked gave them the which they had been looking for. In about 1840, therefore, they organized a rising of the Nupe population against the Ajeles. This revolt was so successful that Usuman Zaki's power collapsed completely and he and his courtiers were compelled to abandon their capital, Raba, and flee to Agaie in the northeast 19.


It will be remembered that Mallam Dendo had originally come from Kebbi and that, when the Empire had been divided on the death of Shehu, Nupe had been included in Abdullahi's sphere of influence. By this time Halilu, Abdullahi's second son, had succeeded as Emir of Gwandu, and the news of the revolt brought him hurrying down to Nupe with a large force behind him. He soon restored peace and his first inclination was to put Usuman Zaki back on the throne. In the end, however, he listened to the pleas of his Nupe subjects, who assured him that the peace would not last unless Masaba became their ruler. He therefore installed Masaba as Emir and carried Usuman Zaki off into banishment in Gwandu 20. At first this move seemed to achieve its object, but in the long term it meant that the Emirate was to be torn by the quarrels of two Fulani factions as well as two Nupe factions.

During the 1840s the new Emir Masaba greatly enlarged the boundaries of the Emirate. He conquered the Kamuku tribe in the north, the riverain Kakandas in the south, and part of the Gwari people in the east. Moreover, though he retained Raba as his capital, he established his power firmly along the south bank of the Niger 21. In the early 1850s the explorer Barth heard reports in Hausaland about the great warlike kingdom of Nupe which lay to the south.

In about 1854 Nupe was once again rent by civil war when Umar Bahaushe, a mercenary captain who had been employed by the Fulani, revolted against them. For a time he carried everything before him, drove Masaba out of Raba, and made himself master of the Emirate. He failed to gain the support of the Nupe population, however, and succeeded only in uniting the two Fulani factions against him. With the help of reinforcements from Gwandu, therefore, he was at length defeated in 1857 and drowned in a river while trying to escape 22.

After the suppression of Umar's rebellion the Emir of Gwandu restored Usuman Zaki to the position of Emir and told him to make his capital at Bida which was nearer the centre of the Emirate than Raba. Two or three years later, however, in about 1860, Usuman Zaki died. He was again succeeded by Masaba, who ruled Nupe until he too died in 1873 23.

But for their internal dissensions it is doubtful whether the Nupe people would ever have been brought within the Fulani Empire.

The Fulani living among them were certainly too few to seize power as they had been able to do in the Hausa States while forces dispatched from the north, which would have had to fight in conditions unsuited to Fulani methods, would probably have been no more successful than those sent against Borgu if they had met an equally united and resolute opposition. As it was, however, the Nupes by their feuds and rivalries first allowed the far less numerous Fulani to dominate their affairs and then to seize and retain power.

In the Hausa States the jihad had the virtue that it led to a clean-cut victory and resulted, for the most part, in the rapid restoration of peace. In Adamawa and Bauchi, religious considerations apart, it could be justified as a step in the process of taming the wild and predatory tribes who inhabited the hills. But in Nupe the war brought neither of these benefits. On the contrary, what had been a simple schism between two Nupe Pretenders became a complex pattern of intrigue and shifting alliances between two Nupe and two Fulani factions. The result was two generations of turbulence and fratricidal strife.

It was not until these feuds had worked themselves out that Nupe was able to take its proper place as one of the richer and more powerful States in the Empire. From the time of Masaba's succession its new regime, represented by an Emir who had a Nupe mother and who called himself by a Nupe title, took on a character of its own which was recognizably different from that of the other vassals. In its devotion to Islam, however, and its loyalty to Gwandu, and through Gwandu to Sokoto, Nupe was no different from any of the other Emirates.


Ilorin
There are many similarities between the processes by which the Fulani established their power in Nupe and those which led to the creation of the Ilorin Emirate. The only important difference is that the Nupes, being much less numerous than the Yorubas, were completely absorbed into the Empire, whereas in llorin the Fulani succeeded in detaching and assimilating only one of the many States of Yorubaland.

The Yorubas, like the Nupes and indeed the Hausas, look back to a mythical founder or culture-hero. This is Oduduwa, who is supposed to have been the son of the ruler of Mecca, in pre-Islamic days, and to have migrated to the west because of a quarrel with his father. After many wanderings he is said to have reached Yorubaland and settled down at Ife. Later, his descendants spread out and founded the other Yoruba city-states. In the meantime, according to this legend, two of his brothers, who had left Arabia at the same time, had become the rulers of the Kanuri and Gobirawa 24.

There is a marked resemblance between this tradition and the Daura legend, but the histories of Bornu and Gobir provide even closer parallels. They, too, preserve the tradition of an origin in Arabia, as has already been mentioned, and they also recognize a cousinly relationship between the three peoples. As in Bornu and Gobir the strangers from the east were apparently sufficiently numerous to have been accepted as an aristocracy by the people of Yorubaland among whom they settled. Moreover, the arts and skills that they brought with them probably made a significant contribution to the advanced culture and complex structure of society that the Yorubas were later to develop. On the other hand, the immigrants do not seem to have been numerous enough to have left any significant ethnic traces behind them because physically the Arabs and Yorubas are very different types. Certainly linguistically they made no mark at all, for the evidence shows Yoruba to be a purely African language 25. Whatever the precise course of these early events may have been, the Yorubas undoubtedly multiplied and developed so that in historical times they emerged as a power to be reckoned with.

Our knowledge of Yorubaland before the eighteenth century derives more from legend than history. It is generally agreed, however, that Oyo, which was to become the more powerful of the Yoruba States, had come into existence by the year 1400 and that its first capital, Old Oyo, was founded at about that time. The Chief held the title of Alafin and the dynasty claimed that the founder of their line was the grandson of the mythical Oduduwa.

Oyo gradually grew in strength and authority until it had extended its sway over the whole of Yorubaland and had become the suzerain of the petty States which surrounded it. By 1700, when it had just conquered the neighbouring kingdom of Dahomey, its power was at its zenith and, with the formerly powerful kingdom of Benin already in decline, it now dominated the whole region south and west of the Lower Niger.

In the eighteenth century, however, Oyo began to show signs of waning. Its military power was based on its cavalry and its prosperity on the overland trade with the Hausa States. With the growth of maritime commerce, the overland trade declined in importance while with the importation of firearms the hitherto dominant role of cavalry began to diminish. The result of these changes was that the States on the seaboard grew in stature while in Old Oyo, situated in the savannah country of the north-east and far removed from the Atlantic, the Alafins found it increasingly difficult to control them. It was therefore a sign of the times when, towards the end of the century, Dahomey refused to pay its tribute and Egba, another vassal State, threw off its allegiance altogether.

The Yorubas at this time still adhered to a complex religion of their own and, although Moslem teachers and missionaries had already appeared among them, Islam had as yet taken no real root. Furthermore, because the prevalence of the tsetse fly had kept the pastoralists at a distance, the Fulani had not penetrated into the country in any significant numbers. If the way had not been opened to them, therefore, it is inconceivable that the Fulani could ever have established themselves as the dominant power in any part of Yorubaland. As it was, however, the dissensions of the Yorubas among themselves was to enable them to do just this.

To the south-east of Old Oyo lay the city and district of florin, an important bastion which was governed by a military commander called Afonja. It will be remembered that when Mallam Dendo, the leader of the jihad in Nupe, had been driven out of Raba it was in Ilorin that he had taken refuge, probably because Afonja by this time had already come under the influence of another Fulani teacher, Mallam Alimi. Be that as it may, the insight that Afonja then gained into the fighting qualities of the Fulani seems to have given him the idea of using them himself to further the designs which he was already harbouring.
From his close association with Mallam Alimi we can assume that by this time Afonja had already become a convert to Islam 26. This in itself would be enough to weaken his loyalty to the Alafin of Oyo who still worshipped other gods. In addition he was an ambitious man who chafed at his vassal status and was eager to become a Chief in his own right. We know at any rate that, soon after Afonja had helped the Nupe Fulani to repel their pursuers, he made a compact with Mallam Alimi for the recruitment from the north of Fulani and Hausa volunteers 27. He no doubt persuaded Mallam Alimi to believe that his aims were to declare a jihad and establish a Moslem Emirate in Ilorin which would owe allegiance to Gwandu and Sokoto, but it seems likely that he was in fact playing a deeper game.

Whether Mallam Alimi had any doubts about Afonja's real motives we do not know, but there was no question about the success of his recruiting, for he attracted to Ilorin large numbers of Fulani and Hausa volunteers. By 1817, the year of Shehu's death, Afonja felt himself to be ready. He therefore threw off his allegiance to the Alafin and declared Ilorin to be independent of Oyo. The Alafin immediately reacted by sending a punitive expedition against him, but, with the help of his Moslem allies, Afonja28.

The rebellion of Afonja in Ilorin was the signal for other vassals to throw off their allegiance and the rickety Empire of Oyo began to break up. By 1821 the Alafin had lost most of his temporal authority outside metropolitan Oyo and was no longer strong enough to bring Ilorin or the other rebels to heel. In Yoruba history this was a development of the greatest significance, for the removal of Oyo's authority was to lead to seventy years of civil war.

In Ilorin Afonja kept on good terms with his Fulani and Hausa allies for just as long as Oyo remained a suzerain to be feared. When Oyo's power collapsed, however, and the threat of conquest was removed, he soon fell out with them. There are two conflicting versions of how this came about. According to the first, the Fulani and Hausas recruited by Mallam Alimi, who were known as the jama'a as the early reformers had been, got out of hand after their victory and started plundering friendly towns and villages 29. But according to the second, the fault lay on the other side and it was the Yorubas who, as soon as the threat from Oyo had been removed, tried to deny their allies the fruits of victory and drive them out of the kingdom which they had helped to create 30.

There is probably truth in both these accounts. Among the Fulani and Hausa volunteers there must have been many adventurers and soldiers of fortune and it would not be surprising if they were guilty of some looting and pillage. On the other hand, Afonja's ruling motive seems to have been personal ambition rather than devotion to Islam and it would have been in character if, when the Fulani and Hausas had served their purpose, he had tried to get rid of them.
Mallam Alimi himself was a soldier and teacher whose aims were religious rather than political. While he lived he did his best to keep his followers under control and his restraining influence on them, combined with the modesty of his personal aims, seems to have prevented an open breach. When he died in 1831, however, he was succeeded as leader of the Moslem group by his son, Abdu Salami dan Alimi, who was a man of much greater worldly ambition 31.

The succession of Abdu Salami at once precipitated the crisis which had long been developing in Ilorin. Afonja no doubt knew what sort of a man he would now have to deal with and made up his mind to attack the Fulani and Hausa immigrants and drive them out of the kingdom altogether. To that end he secretly enlisted the support of neighbouring Yoruba towns. They failed to provide the help on which he was counting, however, and the result was that, when he struck, Abdu Salami was able to turn the tables on him. Afonja was killed in the fighting which followed and the Yoruba cause collapsed 32.

By this victory Abdu Salami made himself master of Ilorin. Like his father before him, he had always looked to Gwandu for leadership and protection. In return he was now presented with a flag and invested with the rank and regalia of an Emir. The Emirate of florin thus came into being in 1831 as part of the Dual Empire.

Abdu Salami did not rest content with the modest domain which he had wrested from Afonja but at once set about enlarging it by making war on his neighbours. He was generally successful and, though unable to hold all his gains, won many notable victories against the crumbling power of Oyo and its warring satellites 33.

The reverses which he suffered at Abdu Salami's hands at length stirred the Alafin to action and he determined to make a supreme effort to crush what he still regarded as the rebellion in Ilorin. To this end he not only summoned to arms his subjects and such vassals as were still loyal but also enlisted the aid of the neighbouring people of Borgu, who had shown in the past that they were capable of withstanding the Fulani. In Ilorin, Abdu Salami got wind of these moves and appealed to Gwandu for help. Halilu, who in 1835 had succeeded his brother as Emir, responded by obtaining reinforcements from Sokoto and dispatching a strong combined force to Abdu Salami's assistance 34.

In the struggle which followed, the Yorubas and their Borgu allies won some early successes. They were gradually forced back, however, and the decisive battle took place near the capital, Old Oyo, in 1837. Its result was an overwhelming victory for the Fulani. The city was captured, the Alafin killed, and the allied armies routed. The Borgawa fared no better than the Yorubas and lost their commander as well as the Chiefs of Kaiama and Wawa 35.

With this defeat the ancient kingdom of Oyo, which had already lost its Empire, more or less disintegrated. The old capital was never rebuilt nor did the Alafins ever recover their paramountcy. Thereafter, Oyo was hardly more than one of the city-states into which Yorubaland now broke up.

Had the Fulani of the day been as bold and aggressive as those of a previous generation they would probably have gone on to subdue these city-states piecemeal and add them to the Empire. By this time, however, their ambitions were largely satisfied and the tide of their expansion was almost spent. The year 1837, moreover, was the one in which Sultan Bello died. They were therefore content to consolidate their power in Ilorin and did not attempt to exploit their victory by making further conquests.

One of the results of the defeat of Oyo and the flight of the Yorubas from the old capital was the founding of Ibadan. The city grew very rapidly in size and importance and for much of the rest of the century it was to be at war with Ilorin, barring the way to any further advance by the Fulani and counter-attacking them whenever the opportunity offered.

Considering what a small minority the Fulani were, the surprising fact was not so much that they let pass the opportunity of annexing the rest of Yorubaland to the Empire but that they managed to establish themselves in even a corner of it. No less surprising was the fact that they were afterwards able to maintain their position among a predominantly Yoruba population when they were all the time being subjected to heavy pressure from the great mass of the Yoruba people beyond their borders. This, however, is what they succeeded in doing. In the process they, too, acquired certain characteristics which distinguished them from their kinsmen in other parts of the Empire. But, as with the Nupe Fulani, their local colouring did not diminish either their devotion to Islam or their loyalty to Gwandu and through Gwandu to Sokoto.

Notes
1. Greenberg classifies it with Ibo and Yoruba in a section of the Niger-Congo group of his Congo-Kordofanian family (op. cit. p. 8).
2. S. F. Nadel, A Black Byzantium, London, 1942, pp. 72-74.
3. Ibid.
4. Nadel, op. cit.
5. Ibid. pp. 75-76.
6. Ibid. p. 76.
7. Gazetteer of Nupe Province, 1920, p. 8.
8. Nadel, op. cit. p. 77.
9. Nadel, op. cit. p. 77.
10. Ibid. pp, 77-73.
11. Ibid. p. 78.
12. Ibid. pp. 78-79
13. Bello, Inf M (Arnett, p. 99).
14. Nadel, op, cit. p. 71).
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid. p. 80.
17. Gazetteer of Nupe Province, p. 11.
18. Nadel, op. cit. p. 80.
19. Gazetteer of Nupe Province, p. 11.
20. Ibid. p. 12.
21. Nadel, op. cit. p. 80.
22. Ibid. pp. 80-82.
23. Gazetteer of Nupe Province, pp. 14-17.
24. Samuel Johnson, History of the Yorubas, London, 1921, pp. 3-4.
25. Greenberg classifies it in the same section of the Niger-Congo group as Nupe. (op. cit. p. 8.)
26. Confirmed by Alhaji Junaidu.
27. Gazetteer of Ilorin Province, 1921, p. 15.
28. Gazetteer of Ilorin Province, p. 16.
29. Hogben and Kirk-Greene, op. cit. p. 287.
30. Gazetteer of Ilorin Province, p. 16.
31. Hogben and Kirk-Greene, op. cit. pp. 287-8.
32. Ibid. p. 289.
33. Gazetteer of Ilorin Province, p. 16.
34. Ibid. pp. 38-39.
35. Hogben and Kirk-Greene, op. cit. p. 291.

London. Ibadan. Nairobi: Oxford University Press. 1967. 312 p.

Big-K
Feb 6, 2010, 04:40 PM
http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/friday_review/article08/indexn3_html?pdate=060309&ptitle=%3CI%3EMakaman+Nupe%3C/I%3E...+preserving+cultural+heritage+of+Nupes&cpdate=090309

See the bolded parts below:


Friday, March 06, 2009

Makaman Nupe... preserving cultural heritage of Nupes

THE appointment, recently, of Alhaji Dalhatu Aliyu Makama as the new Makaman Nupe by the Etsu Nupe, His Royal Highness Alhaji Yahaya Abubakar (CFR) has been described as a reflection of the Estu's dedication to merit and innovative leadership. Besides, the choice has also enjoined the acceptability of the entire Nupe-land with the belief that the rich cultural heritage of the Nupes has found another dependable ally and promoter.

This belief is justified by the love that Etsu himself has demonstrated for cultural heritage of his people.

Indeed, since his ascension to the throne on September 12, 2003, the Estu has not only distinguished himself as an astute administrator, but he also acknowledged the need for a forward thinking innovative team to drive his developmental agenda for the Nupes. He has therefore been appointing credible personalities to traditional positions in the Emirate and Nupeland. Of the several notable traditional positions in Nupeland, the Makaman Nupe title has gained popularity in the recent past, due to the calibre and dedication of the past holders of the title.

In keeping with his reputation as a decisive leader, a new Makaman Nupe was appointed about two months after the death of Alhaji Shehu Musa - the last Makaman Nupe. The new holder of the title, Alhaji Dalhatu Aliyu Makama is a General Manager in NNPC serving currently as the Company Secretary and Legal Adviser of Brass LNG Ltd; an international Liquefied Natural Gas company situated in Brass Island, Nigeria as part of the government's efforts to develop the Niger Delta region and monetize Nigeria's gas assets.

During the coronation recently, the Etsu Nupe called on the new Makaman to emulate the sterling qualities of his predecessors including his uncle - the immediate past Makaman Nupe, Alhaji Shehu Musa (a former Second Republic Secretary to the Goverment of the Federation and one time Chairman of the National Population Commission) and his late father, Alhaji Aliyu Makaman Bida (Minister of Finance in the First Republic Northern Region and former Deputy to the Premier of the defunct Northern Region) adding that it was such positive examples by such prominent personalities that have moved the entire Nupeland forward.

One virtue that has endeared the King to his people is his continued focus on uniting the Nupe people through exemplary leadership. The Etsu is reputed for operating an open door policy on all issues be religion, commerce or culture. His military background (he retired as Brigadier-General of the Nigerian Army) has been an added advantage in providing decisive leadership. A lover of the common man, his concern for the struggling man is being reciprocated as he unsurprisingly enjoys immeasurable goodwill and great followership, having earned the trust of his subjects. Today, the Etsu Nupe is a rallying point for the Nupe people home and abroad.

Perhaps one of the greatest attributes of HRH Alhaji Yahaya Abubakar is his immeasurable love and focus on the cultural heritage of his people. His open door policy has made Bida a land that loves and embraces non-indegenes while giving them equal opportunity to succeed; encouraging creativity and industry.

Aware of these sterling qualities, Etsu Igbosi of Bida (an Igbo turbaned as a cabinet member of the traditional council in 1994) described Etsu Nupe as ''a light in the night, attracting all the world around him."

Another notable passion of the Etsu is grassroot development. He has initiated and led several grassroots developmental efforts. As an agrarian farmer, he has led by example through his venturing into commercial farming and has established many agricultural cottage industries, thereby creating jobs opportunities for many of his people. It is generally felt that this love for bottom-up development is currently driving his great quest for the creation of a State for the Nupe people spanning four States in North Central Nigeria. The Etsu's vision for a Nupe State to unite the Nupe people in Niger, Kogi. Kwara and Benue is steadily gaining momentum based on the merit of the request and the tenacious energy of the Etsu in driving this new progressive agenda for the Nupe people.

The new Makaman Nupe was born on June 25, 1957 in Bida. He attended Capital School Kaduna and gained admission into King's College, Lagos in 1969. He is a graduate of law from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and was at the Nigeria Law School between 1978 and 1979. A veteran in international Oil and Gas affairs, he has been in that sector for over two decades contributing at the highest level of business leadership. He joined NNPC as Head of Legal of the then Refineries Sector Headquarters in 1986. In 1990, he was seconded to National Oil & Chemical Marketing PLC (a joint venture Company with NNPC, Shell and the Public) and was the Company Secretary and Adviser (Legal and External Relations) before his de-secondment to NNPC in 2001. In recognition of his diligence and commitment to excellence he was appointed the pioneer Company Secretary and Legal Adviser of Brass LNG Ltd on the 20th of February, 2004 , a position he has held till date.

The History of Nupe Fulani dynasty began with the acceptance of Fulani migrants in the Nupe army as well as the coming of Fulani merchants and Quaranic teachers. The most notable of these migrants is Mallam Dendo, a young and intelligent man of prayer and a great thinker held in high esteem by all. He helped Etsu Majiya become the undisputed overall Etsu by snatching the other half of Nupe from his cousin Jimada in a bloody conquest though Jimada's son Idrisu escaped. The increased wealth, fame and army strength of the Fulani's under Dendo leadership became a threat to Majiya so he decided to evict the foreigners (the Fulani jihadist) who fled to Ilorin but with the help of Alimi (the famed Ilorin fulani jihadist warrior) and Idrisu, Mallam Majiya was defeated in battle and fled into exile.

Mallam Dendo accessed Raba, the then Nupe capital, compensated Idrisu as a marionette Etsu Nupe in Eggan, but the Fulani prominence (setting up courts, collecting taxes and playing host to foreigners) reduced the Etsu Idrisu to a figure head, he later waged a war against this insurgent but was defeated by Dendo with the help of Tsado, son of exiled Majiya.

Months before Mallam Dendo's death, he elevated his son Usman Zaki from the rank of Sarkin Fulani to Etsu Nupe with Raba as the capital and instituted rotation of Etsuship between the houses of his two sons (Usman Zaki and Masaba) and his much loved grandson Umaru Majigi. He encouraged the intermarriage of their children to foster unity and peace.

Though the desire of the original Nupe rulers to take back the throne led to many wars, the Fulani Etsu Nupe Dynasty tree planted by Dendo was watered by the selfless and peace loving leadership of Umaru Majigi, who brought an end to the unrest and bloodsheds by uniting his family and ensuring the return of his exiled uncles who ruled before him.

Bida became the new capital and Usman Zaki became the first Etsu Nupe to reside there.

Austin
Feb 8, 2010, 08:39 PM
With this defeat the ancient kingdom of Oyo, which had already lost its Empire, more or less disintegrated. The old capital was never rebuilt nor did the Alafins ever recover their paramountcy. Thereafter, Oyo was hardly more than one of the city-states into which Yorubaland now broke up.

Had the Fulani of the day been as bold and aggressive as those of a previous generation they would probably have gone on to subdue these city-states piecemeal and add them to the Empire. By this time, however, their ambitions were largely satisfied and the tide of their expansion was almost spent. The year 1837, moreover, was the one in which Sultan Bello died. They were therefore content to consolidate their power in Ilorin and did not attempt to exploit their victory by making further conquests.

One of the results of the defeat of Oyo and the flight of the Yorubas from the old capital was the founding of Ibadan. The city grew very rapidly in size and importance and for much of the rest of the century it was to be at war with Ilorin, barring the way to any further advance by the Fulani and counter-attacking them whenever the opportunity offered.

Considering what a small minority the Fulani were, the surprising fact was not so much that they let pass the opportunity of annexing the rest of Yorubaland to the Empire but that they managed to establish themselves in even a corner of it. No less surprising was the fact that they were afterwards able to maintain their position among a predominantly Yoruba population when they were all the time being subjected to heavy pressure from the great mass of the Yoruba people beyond their borders.

So what do we say to this, "glory be to Ifa, Orunmila baba agbonmiregun," who poluted the minds of the Fulanis from "annexing the rest of Yorubaland to the Empire", abi?:D:D

But wait o, one could easily sense a contradiction o, were the almighty Fulanis just magnanimous in spirit, or were they just not "as bold and aggressive as those of a previous generation?".

Oh, and which is which, were the Fulanis just content with their conquest and unwilling to proceed on their expansionary aggression as earlier claimed in the article, or was it the city (of Ibadan) that "grew very rapidly in size and importance and for much of the rest of the century it was to be at war with Ilorin, barring the way to any further advance by the Fulani?"

And what is the relevance of this revisionism to the present desire of some Yorubas to liberate their kith and kin from Ilorin and other concerned areas. Afterall, through out history, there had been territories and indeed nations taken, ruled and later liberated by concerned and determined people of such territories and nations?

How do the stories published, which though partial but nevertheless acceptable, refute the fact;
that there are Yorubas presently trapped inside Kogi and Kwarra states? that some of those 'lost tribesmen and women' are ruled by aliens?
And that some of their kins could have have fervent desire to liberate them?

In conclusion, I will say that personally, when shove turns push, I will prefer that the people of the concerned areas decide to which political order/group they want to belong. But I also want to make it clear that when real-poltik sets in, the people may not necessarily be in a position to exercise that freedom of choice, simply because they have family members who want them "home", by hook or crook.:D

Bode Eluyera
Feb 9, 2010, 03:58 AM
Many of us don't understand our own history as well as we should. I'm hoping these historical excursions will help.

This particular thread is annex to an interesting discussion on how Yorubas in Kogi and Kwara came to be absorbed into Northen Nigeria. I mentioned on that thread that to get a good understanding, we must understand the Nupe people, their wars and subjugation of the peoples of the lower Niger. So on this thread, I will be posting materials that may help understand the Nupe people.

Please note that this series will help understanding and its not meant to be an ethnic baiting discussion.

Resources:


Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam by Paul Lovejoy
Read Chapter 4 The Southward Campaigns of Nupe in the Lower Niger Valley Femi J. Kolapo
Read at Google here:http://books.google.com/books?id=T4w3xWn1yGAC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=Femi+J+Kolapo+The+Southward+Campaigns&source=bl&ots=zAcHtoG5V0&sig=CxnDhVc2EoNmrf-4C1xJzlGUrsY&hl=en&ei=06RtS53YEonENpDuhcwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Femi%20J%20Kolapo%20The%20Southward%20Campaigns&f=false


The Fulani Empire of Sokoto: H.A.S. Johnston.
Chapter Thirteen: The Jihad in Nupe and Ilorin
http://www.amanaonline.com/Sokoto/sokoto_13.htm


Kolapo, Femi James, "The Dynamics of Early 19th Century Nupe Wars." In the Proceeding of the Conference on War and Society in Africa held at the Military. History Department, Faculty of Military Science, University of
Stellenbosch (Military Academy) Saldanha, South Africa. September 2001.


Facebook Discussion: THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF NUPE PEOPLE
http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=6588136193&topic=4163


More to come

Big-K, well done for opening this thread, most especially for extending a personal invitation to me to join you in the deliberation. I am honoured and humbled at the same time. This is a good opportunity to get to the bottom of the matter.

This discussion reminds me of a Russian proverb that goes thus "Век живй, век учись." Translation: "If you live for a century, you must also learn for a century." In a lay man's language what this proverb means is that 'One must continue learning once he is still alive i.e. Nobody is too old learn.'

Big-K, before going further, let me quickly add here that I COMPLETELY agree with you that 'we don't really know our history!' Unfortunately, it is very sad to admit that 'there is a serious flaw in Nigeria's system of education.' I realized that on getting to Russia. Our system of education was designed in such a way that too much emphasis is laid on western values and history while our own history, culture and values take a serious bashing and are relegated to the bottom. In Russia for example, history is a compulsory subject in the primary and secondary schools respectively. The pupils study 'Russian history' as a seperate subject for at least 7 years out of the 9-11 years that they spend in tertiary education - before enrolling in universities. Unfortunately, in most cases, it is this lack of even 'basic knowledge' about ourselves, neighbours and history that have created unwarranted/baseless suspiction and enmity. Most importantly, this explains the reason why the One Nigeria is still elusive almost 100 yeras after the amalgamation of the North with the South. Nigeria, as many political analysts have pointed out, is just a mere geographical expression. We have not been able to form a NATION. All we have is a country - a mere geographical expression.
Undoubtedly, our system education needs a complete overhaul. It is not only humanitarians or historians that should know about Nigeria's history but every pupil.

I will be back later Big-K.

Mikky jaga
Feb 10, 2010, 09:58 AM
Please, can anybody tell which state of Nigeria the Fulanis are indigenous to since we can now see that even the Nupes are not Fulanis? Where also can we find the Hausas? Why also do we have Fulani Nupe ans Hausa Fulani? Why must they prefix themselves with Fulani? Is there a reason apart from the history of former conquest for these people to still retain the identities of their conquerors when naturally, people tend to want to obliterate such inglorious past?

Mikky jaga
Feb 11, 2010, 06:18 PM
My question that was posted on this thread remains unanswered. I did some research, and got part answer from a paper written by Femi Awoniyi in 2002 titled:

Fulanis, Yorubas, Islam and Political Power in Nigeria
in response to an article published by one Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa

The interesting article can be read on this site: http://www.nigerdeltacongress.com/farticles/fulanis_yorubas_islam_and_politi.htm

The relevant portion that partly answered my question on relations between the Hausas and their conquered allies like the Hausas and the Nupes is reproduced below, they are in form of rhetorical questions:


For how long would the Fulani Oligarchy be able to deflect the massive resentment among Hausas over Fulani privilege in the direction of non-Muslims, Yorubas, Igbos, or what have you, away from its legitimate target?

For how long would Fulanis be able to uphold their privileges in Nigeria and hold down the Hausas and their other subordinate peoples in the North?

For how long must the rest of us suffer for the Fulani oppression of Hausa people?

For how long can Fulanis keep the yearnings of Hausas bottled-up ?

For how long would Fulanis be able deceive the whole world?

The other question on the States where the Fulanis and the Hausas are indigenous to in Nigeria is still being researched into.

Ishola Taiwo
Feb 14, 2010, 04:48 PM
Had the Fulani of the day been as bold and aggressive as those of a previous generation they would probably have gone on to subdue these city-states piecemeal and add them to the Empire. By this time, however, their ambitions were largely satisfied and the tide of their expansion was almost spent. The year 1837, moreover, was the one in which Sultan Bello died. They were therefore content to consolidate their power in Ilorin and did not attempt to exploit their victory by making further conquests.

One of the results of the defeat of Oyo and the flight of the Yorubas from the old capital was the founding of Ibadan. The city grew very rapidly in size and importance and for much of the rest of the century it was to be at war with Ilorin, barring the way to any further advance by the Fulani and counter-attacking them whenever the opportunity offered.

Considering what a small minority the Fulani were, the surprising fact was not so much that they let pass the opportunity of annexing the rest of Yorubaland to the Empire but that they managed to establish themselves in even a corner of it. No less surprising was the fact that they were afterwards able to maintain their position among a predominantly Yoruba population when they were all the time being subjected to heavy pressure from the great mass of the Yoruba people beyond their borders. This, however, is what they succeeded in doing.

Very good example of propaganda as history.

The author mixes up time periods and by so doing is able to ignore those conclusions that are unavoidable to ones who look at events as they unfold in sequential time.

He claims above that by 1837, the Fulani are "content to consolidate their power in Ilorin and did not attempt to exploit their victory by making further conquests.."

But had this been true, then there would have been no battle at Oshogbo in 1840 between Yoruba armies from Ibadan and the Fulani. In other words, contrary to what the author maintains, the Fulani were still trying to advance into Yoruba territories up until 1840.

An advance was stopped by the decisive defeat that Ibadan inflicted upon them at Oshogbo.

The real lesson that comes from the period in history is not the one that tells us that "Had the Fulani of the day been as bold and aggressive as those of a previous generation they would probably have gone on to subdue these city-states piecemeal and add them to the Empire."

The truth of that period in history is that the Oyo lost Ilorin not because the Fulani were bolder and more aggressive but because the Yoruba were weakened for a while by their own internal divisions.

DeepThought
Feb 15, 2010, 04:23 PM
Please, can anybody tell which state of Nigeria the Fulanis are indigenous to since we can now see that even the Nupes are not Fulanis? Where also can we find the Hausas? Why also do we have Fulani Nupe ans Hausa Fulani? Why must they prefix themselves with Fulani? Is there a reason apart from the history of former conquest for these people to still retain the identities of their conquerors when naturally, people tend to want to obliterate such inglorious past?


As far as I know, the Fulani were not orignially indiginous to any part of Nigera. However, this is not saying much. Oduduwa we are also told migrated from "somewhere in the east" and was not originally from Ife and not probably not indiginous to any part of Nigeria.

Mikky jaga
Feb 15, 2010, 04:49 PM
As far as I know, the Fulani were not orignially indiginous to any part of Nigera. However, this is not saying much. Oduduwa we are also told migrated from "somewhere in the east" and was not originally from Ife and not probably not indiginous to any part of Nigeria.

But which states are they indigenous to now? Afterall Yorubas are indigenous to Lagos, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti, parts of Kwara and parts of Kogi, parts of Edo States.

Ibos are indigenous to Abia, Ebonyi, Enugu, Anambra, Imo, parts of R$ivers and Delta States

So where are the Fulanis and the Hausas indigenous to? Forget about where they originated or migrated from

Bode Eluyera
Feb 16, 2010, 12:28 AM
As far as I know, the Fulani were not orignially indiginous to any part of Nigera. However, this is not saying much. Oduduwa we are also told migrated from "somewhere in the east" and was not originally from Ife and not probably not indiginous to any part of Nigeria.


ZULU GAMBARI IS OCCUPYING ILORIN THRONE ILLEGALLY: SOONER OR LATER HE WILL HAVE TO VACATE IT - EITHER PEACEFULLY OR BY FORCE!!!

Deep Thought, thanks a lot for joining us and for your valuable contribution to this very important discussion. Let me start by saying that I agree with the first part of your post that 'the Fulani were not originally indigenous to any part of Nigeria but conquered and occupied the territories that they are laying claim to today: Sokoto and other cities/towns in the North. They tried to do the same with the Yorubas but were stopped at Ilorin - as Eja rightly claimed.

In addition, I completely agree with Eja's version that the Fulanis were able to capture Ilorin because of the internal divisions among the Yorubas then. I did some research on this topic for part 8 of my series "How the Niger Deltans can get their freedom: The Action Plan!

What the Fulanis/Hausas were unable to achieve through war with Yoruba territories, they are now trying to achieve their aim of conquering and claiming Yoruba territories "through fraudulent state creation (I wrote about this in that article) and massive Fulanization of Ilorin, Kwara and Kogi states respectively. You don't need any evidence to prove that Kwara and Kogi states up to Lokoja are Yoruba territories - just take a look at the names of the towns and villages surrounding Ilorin and Offa; and of course the language of the people.

Furthermore, what is UNDOUBTABLE is the fact that the Fulanis/Zulugambari are occupying Ilorin throne ILLEGALLY!. Sooner or later, they will have to give it up. If they think that the issue is resolved and that they Ilorin throne belongs to them, then I am sorry to say that they are mistaken. Zulugambari has succeeded so far in occupying the throne because of the Northern military officers who have ruled Nigeria from independence and the fact that PDP - a party dominated mainly by Northerners and controlled by them - has been rigging gubernatorial elections in Kwara state. Sooner or later, ZuluGambari will have to vacate that throne. I am not happy that Afenifere and OPC are not active and vocal enough as regards to the ILLEGAL OCCUPATION of Ilorin throne by the Fulani invaders and the general plight of the Yorubas in Kwara and Kogi states respectively. In general, I consider this problem to be the collective responsibility of all the Yorubas

Concerning the migration of Oduduwa from somewhere in the East -probably Mecca - I really don't believe that. Many historians are also disputing it too. If you take a look at where and how present Yoruba towns, cities and villages are located and spread out, and the ethnic grouos that surround them, then you will surely agree with me that the migration of the Yorubas/Oduduwa from the east does not hold water. As a matter of fact, there is another version from the Benins who are claiming that Oduduwa in actual fact was a Benin sent out on a journey to the Yorubas by the King of Benin.

Personally, I would have loved to know more about the Itsekiris of the Niger Delta whom I recently discovered are even historically, culturally and language wise much closer to the Yorubas than the Benins. The Itsekiris bear Yoruba names and have similar culture with them. So my question is this: Would it be right to say that the Itsekiris - just like the Okuns of Kogi state - are also Yorubas? Based on my little research and enquiry, I understand that the Itsekiris, just like the Yoruba Okuns, are also being suppressed and opressed by other ethnic groups in the N.D. especially the Urhobos, and that their major/biggest city has been taken over by then. I will be glad and grateful if historians and other villagers could join us in this discussion and enlighten us - without any bias. Thank you.

Bode Eluyera
Feb 16, 2010, 12:31 AM
But which states are they indigenous to now? Afterall Yorubas are indigenous to Lagos, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti, parts of Kwara and parts of Kogi, parts of Edo States.

Ibos are indigenous to Abia, Ebonyi, Enugu, Anambra, Imo, parts of R$ivers and Delta States

So where are the Fulanis and the Hausas indigenous to? Forget about where they originated or migrated from

Mikky, you left out Benin republic and Delta state as one of the states that the Yorubas are indegenous to. Is this an omission?

Ishola Taiwo
Feb 16, 2010, 08:02 AM
Researchers using linguistics and other cultural markers as indicators of kinship have found settled groups related to the ones called Yoruba today as far west as present day Sierra Leone and as far east as the Sudan.

The last mentioned location in the paragraph above may in fact give us the most reliable idea of where the Oduduwa group of migrants came from. We should remember that the original myth made reference to the "east" as being the embarkation point of this group of migrants. It was later on when Islam started becoming a force of some sort in the regions inhabited by the Yoruba that the "east" became synonymous with Mecca in some accounts - just as some also equated Lamurudu (Oodua's father) with the Nimrod spoken of in the Hebrew bible.

I made previous mention of an "Oduduwa group of migrants" to point out how Oduduwa was not just one man who wandered into Ife all by himself. According to available evidence, the people that are settled in what is called Yoruba-land today are the descendants of successive waves of migrants into the region. The Oodua group of migrants just happens to be the most prominent we know of today because it was from them that the leadership caste in several locations emerged.

The reason for this prominence may be because they were the bearers of superior technologies or/and more effective ideas in the field of civic organisation.

What has also been revealed is that the so-called seven towns of Oduduwa's seven sons were actually dispersion locations. The equivalent of these today would be the 36 capitals of the 36 states created in Nigeria by the central government ...... myth-makers wishing to describe this subject thousands of years from now may speak about the 36 sons of Babasanbacha....:lol:

Finally, with regards to point of origin, what we should keep in mind is that in the time before borders were fixed on Euro-imperialist derived maps, people were accustomed to traveling back and forth and this was a process that unfolded over generations. What this then meant was that a person may set out from Juba in Sudan to return to the Ife his ancestors left 500 years ago.....so, talk about where ones from a certain period in history are originally from is not a straight-forward matter...


PS. Sorry to have gone on about the Yoruba O, I know that the original question is "Who are the Nupes?"

Mikky jaga
Feb 16, 2010, 08:40 AM
The point of my inquiry is this: Since the latest Jos crisis, I have come to understand that my understanding of the composition of Nigeria ethnically is flawed, just like when I was younger and felt everybody from the East of Niger was Ibo, and Rivers State was completely Ijaw.

With the revelations on this thread that the Nupes are not Fulanis, I begin to wonder where the Fulanis are in Nigeria. The North now appears to me now to be like Delta State - one kilometre, one people.

Apart from Sokoto and Katsina, where else are the Fulanis indigenous to? Yes, they are found all over the North, just like the Igbo man is found all over Nigeria doing his business, but the Igbos have their homeland.

The Hausas too, apart from Kano and maybe parts of Kaduna, where else are these people indigenous to?

Please help!!

Janjaweed
Feb 16, 2010, 09:25 AM
Eja, is it possible for you to give references for your postulations in post #13 above? Thanks

Ishola Taiwo
Feb 16, 2010, 01:07 PM
Eja, is it possible for you to give references for your postulations in post #13 above? Thanks

Normally, I do try and provide sources for further reading but I was preparing to leave for an appointment when I made that post. Now, with regards to hardcopy, you can try the following :



The Cultural Unity Of Black Africa (http://www.amazon.com/Cultural-Unity-Black-Africa-Patriarchy/dp/0907015441).

[video]http://www.amazon.com/African-Origin-Civilization-Myth-Reality/dp/1556520727/ref=pd_sim_b_2"]The African Origin Of Civilization



Both books are by Cheikh Anta Diop and both show how the dispersion of peoples throughout the continent proceeded in accordance with a specific logic. I suspect that you are already familiar with these books (and their author) so, it is very likely that you are also aware of this logic.

Online articles like the ones listed below flesh out (in more specific terms) some components of the results obtained by Professor Diop in the course of his research into these ancient migration patterns and, how these could have affected the societies that were originally indigenous to each area of interest.



The Father Of All Nigerian Ethnic Groups (http://www.dawodu.com/martins1.htm)

KMT To Yoruba (http://nigeriavillagesquare.com/forum/archive/index.php/t-20047.html)

The Ijebu People (http://www.ijebuassociation.org/history.htm)


Another book that I have found handy (mainly because of its size...:lol:) is Kingdoms Of The Yoruba (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qpwOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=kingdoms+of+the+yoruba&source=bl&ots=A6HOkUcNbv&sig=Z0vv0HmgyUpLQ9TbAtKehLzZ3z4&hl=en&ei=tKB6S-72GsiQjAeG0KTJCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false).

Janjaweed, having said all the above in response to your request for sources, I recommend that you make sure that your sense of discernment remains the supreme arbiter of what is accepted as a true account of the distant past.

With regards to our origins, there is no book that we know of that was written by individuals who witnessed the events we are interested in. So, no matter how much we read and, no matter how many other scholarly references are quoted by the authors of those books, we will always find ourselves back at the original source of all stories - which is one person speaking to other persons (just as you and I are doing right now).

Ishola Taiwo
Feb 16, 2010, 01:26 PM
Apart from Sokoto and Katsina, where else are the Fulanis indigenous to?

Fulani are indigenous to parts of Mali and Guinea. They are especially concentrated (I think) in the area surrounding Futa Djalon (in Guinea).

http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/maps/m103072_gv.gif

While an exact date of their large scale settlement in the Hausa Kingdoms cannot be stated with certitude, they were already present in that region by the beginnings of the 14th century (Ref: CK Meek - The Northern Tribes of Nigeria Vol 1 (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=r_av2KGq5QUC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=ck+meek+the+northern+tribes+of+Nigeria&source=bl&ots=dm-PK14zFx&sig=XK_uCf7Xq7_MLzRC9qceAiCrb9k&hl=en&ei=-Kl6S4KCA5CRjAet1piWCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=ck%20meek%20the%20northern%20tribes%20of%20Niger ia&f=false)).

Bode Eluyera
Feb 16, 2010, 11:12 PM
The point of my inquiry is this: Since the latest Jos crisis, I have come to understand that my understanding of the composition of Nigeria ethnically is flawed, just like when I was younger and felt everybody from the East of Niger was Ibo, and Rivers State was completely Ijaw.

With the revelations on this thread that the Nupes are not Fulanis, I begin to wonder where the Fulanis are in Nigeria. The North now appears to me now to be like Delta State - one kilometre, one people.

Apart from Sokoto and Katsina, where else are the Fulanis indigenous to? Yes, they are found all over the North, just like the Igbo man is found all over Nigeria doing his business, but the Igbos have their homeland.

The Hausas too, apart from Kano and maybe parts of Kaduna, where else are these people indigenous to?

Please help!!

Mikky, thanks for your post.

I can with confidence say that perhaps this tghread/topic could be one of the most important threads since NVS was founded. Honestly, in terms of identifying the various ethnic groups in Nigeria, I count myself a LITTLE BIT luckier than you. My educational background helped me out. Even right from the primary school I knew that the east was not all about the Ndigbos. There was a girl (Her name was QUEEN. Sorry I can't writer surname here without her permission) from the former Cross River state, whom I assumed was born in the S.W. and lived all along there because her Yoruba was just as good as ours. But it was my secondary school that gave me a much broader knowledge of Nigerian ethnic groups. I attended a Federal Government College which consisited of virtually all ethnic groups from the country. We knew who was from where. There were students from Rivers State/Port Harcourt: The Spiffs, The Georgewills, The Ebrukes, e.t.c. There were those from Calabar/former Cross River state: The Abasekongs, The Ekpeyongs, e.t.c. There were those from the East: The Emechetes, The Chukwuekes, The Okpalas, The Okoros, e.t.c. It was there that I met many Yoruba speaking Lagos Ndigbos- practically all of whom were born in Lagos and have lived there all their lives. They even consider Lagos to be there For 5 good years I sat side by side with a girl/lady from the former Gongola state. To be honest we all got along well, and to the best of my knowledge, there was no discrimination or conflict on ethic grounds. Infact, I was so close to this girl that other students used to tease me that she was my lovely wife. Could you even imagine that some Yorubas learnt the Hausa language from their counterparts.

But do you know what Mikky. I never could figure out the northerners - just like you. They all looked the same to me/us. The only difference to us was just in their states. To us they were all Hausas. I think the major reason for this is the Hausa language which has become not only a regional lingua franca in the the north, but has as well become the unifying force. I regret that I never took time to discuss about the north, most especially the different ethnic groups, in details with her throughout our surgeon. Nevertheless, I still strongly believe that a substantial number of Northerners who are claiming to be Nigerians are in actual fact are not Nigerians. Their parents, grand parents and great grandparents migrated to the North and settled down there. This is one of the reasons why I believe that there is a need to reconduct the census and expertize of those Northerners claiming to be Nigerians.

Mikky jaga
Feb 17, 2010, 07:57 AM
So, if I was right when I said Fulanis are only indigenous to Sokoto and Katsina States and the Hausas are purely indigenous to Kano and parts of Kaduna, it then means that these two minority groups came together as Hausa/Fulani to hoodwink the other minority groups in the North that may have larger population than either of these two to form a phantom majority Hausa/Fulani oligarchy.

Whereas Ijaw Nation that ran across the whole areas from Rivers through Bayelsa, across Delta to Ondo States have been balkanized into tiny fragments to turn them into an imaginary minority group.

I now understand why the Hausa/Fulanis are always jittery whenever a call for National Conference of ethnic Nationalities is called. Nigeria is founded on the foundation of falsehood and some people are bent on perpetuating such falsehood.

I stand to be corrected.

Mikky jaga
Feb 17, 2010, 08:02 AM
Fulani are indigenous to parts of Mali and Guinea. They are especially concentrated (I think) in the area surrounding Futa Djalon (in Guinea).

http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/maps/m103072_gv.gif

While an exact date of their large scale settlement in the Hausa Kingdoms cannot be stated with certitude, they were already present in that region by the beginnings of the 14th century (Ref: CK Meek - The Northern Tribes of Nigeria Vol 1 (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=r_av2KGq5QUC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=ck+meek+the+northern+tribes+of+Nigeria&source=bl&ots=dm-PK14zFx&sig=XK_uCf7Xq7_MLzRC9qceAiCrb9k&hl=en&ei=-Kl6S4KCA5CRjAet1piWCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=ck%20meek%20the%20northern%20tribes%20of%20Niger ia&f=false)).

Eja, which kain tori be this? We dey talk of where the people wey hold the Nation to ransom within Nigeria are based in Nigeria, you dey talk of Futa Jalon in far away Sierra leone. Unless you wan tell me say these people no be Nigerians at all.

Big-K
Feb 17, 2010, 12:38 PM
Eja,

The Fulanis may have originated from the area you mentioned but they have spread far and wide to other parts of West Africa and even to Central Africa. The Spread was in two ways - The Fulah Jihads and the nomadic nature of the Fulah people.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fula_people



Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language, Fulɓe[1]) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and Sudanese North Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Chad, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the east. Fula people form a minority in every country they inhabit, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (40%).Total population 27 000 000.[2]

There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term, and it is also used by the Manding peoples, being the diminutive form of the word "Fula" in their language, essentially meaning "little Fula". Fula, from Manding languages is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fulani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, which is a plural noun (singular, Pullo) has been adapted to English as Fulbe, which some people use. In Portuguese it's Fula or Futafula.

Origins and spread
While some have speculated over the origin of Fulani people, current linguistic and genetic evidence suggests an indigenous West African origin among the Peul.[3] The vast majority of genetic lineages associated with them reflect those most commonly seen in other west Africans. Their language is also of west African origin, most closely related to that of the Wolof and Serer ethnic groups.[1]. Historical and archaeological records indicate that Peul-speakers have resided in western Africa since at least the 5th century A.D. as well. Interestingly, rock paintings in the Tassili-n-Ajjer suggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the fourth millennium B.C. Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people.[4]

Rise to political dominance

Beginning as early as the 17th and 18th centuries, but mainly in the 19th century, Fulas and others took control of various states in West Africa.
These included the Fulani Empire, also known as the Sokoto Caliphate, founded by Usman dan Fodio (which itself included smaller states), Fouta Djallon, Massina and others.

Big-K
Feb 17, 2010, 12:43 PM
All (Particularly Bode)

The more we explore this topic, the more we come to understand that the Hausas and most of the indigeneous peoples of Northern Nigeria were themselves colonized by the Fulanis.

The more we will also realize that Fulani spread into other parts of Nigeria (including Yorubaland) was mostly through proxies. They convert a set of people and then use them to subjugate the next. E.g Convert the Nupes to subjugate Kwara and Kogi.

The Fulah Jihads

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fula_jihads



Fulani jihad states
The term jihad state is historically used in reference to the 19th century Islamic conquests in Western Africa, especially the Fulani jihad or Fulbe (from Fulɓe) jihad, a phrase referring to the state-founding jihad led by Usman dan Fodio in the first decade of the 19th century in and around Nigeria. Most of these states were in colonial times brought into the British Northern Nigeria Protectorate around 1901-1903.
The jihad states in the region controlled by the empire included:

Abuja, replacing the former Zuba; the ruler's title was Sarkin Zazzau, from 1828 also Emir
Adamawa (now partially in Cameroon), founded in 1809; title Baban-Lamido
Agaie, founded in 1822; title emir
Bauchi emirate, founded in 1805; title Lamido (laamiiɗo in Fula language), meaning "ruler" (similar meaning to Emir )
Gombe, founded in 1804; title Modibo Gombe.
Gwandu, a major Fulbe jihad state, founded in 1817; title Emir
Hadejia, replaced Biram (title Sarkin Biram) in 1805; new title Sarkin Hadejia, from 1808 also styled Emir
Jama`are, founded in 1811; style Emir.
Jema`an Darroro, founded in 1810; title Emir
Kano replaced the old (Hausa) Kano state in March 1807; the old title Sarkin Kano is still used, but now also styled Emir
Katagum, founded in 1807; title Sarkin Katagum, also styled Emir
Katsina replaced the old (Hausa) Katsina state in 1805; the old title Sarkin Katsina is still used, but now also styled Emir.
Kazaure, founded in 1818; title Emir, also styled Sarkin *Arewa (apparently imitating neighbours)
Keffi, founded in 1802; title Emir
Lafiagi, founded in 1824; new title Emir
Lapai, founded in 1825; style Emir
Mubi, founded in 18..; title Emir
Muri, founded in 1817, style Emir; 1892-1893 de facto French protectorate, 1901 part of Northern Nigerian British protectorate
Sokoto, the center of the Fulani jihad, established on 21 February 1804 by Usman dan Fodio, title Amir al-Mu´minin, also styled Lamido Julbe; on 20 April 1817 Sokoto was styled sultanate (title sultan, also styled Amir al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi), the suzerain of all Fulbe jihad states; in 1903 the British occupied Sokoto Sultanate
Zaria, superseded the old Zazzau state (title Sarkin Zazzau) on 31 December 1808; new style first Malam, since October/November 1835 Emir, also styled Sarkin Zaria and Sarkin Zazzau

Bode Eluyera
Feb 18, 2010, 03:44 AM
The Hausa Man and his Language and Culture least he forgets.

I do not know whether to admire my Muslim Hausa brothers' forgetfulness or to pity him for it.

One thing I personally admire about the Yoruba man is that he teaches his child his history and culture to the later. That is why you have a Yoruba Muslim called Bola Tinubu or Tunde Fashola or even MKO Abiola all Yoruba native names and likewise the Kanuri man despite the fact that they embraced Islam one thousand years before it was eventually forced on the Hausa man by the Fulanis from Senegal. The forgetfulness of the Hausa man is legendary. I advise my Hausa brothers especially those Muslims amongst them who want to write in the press to cross check facts and read history first before putting pen to paper.

I am really very surprise that a Hausa man can ignorantly actually lay claim to 'Kaftans', the long shirt, 'Zanna Bukar', the long cap or hat, the turban and many others which he had borrowed from the Arabs or the Fulbe as recent as 19th century. He behaves like the Somalian who is more Arabic than the Arab man.

No wonder a Hausa man who came to Jos Plateau from Kano in 1994 will swear with "Walahi talahi" that his grandfather was born in Jos and he does not know where he comes from. I mean as recent as just last year 2009AD, Dr Aliyu Tilde, to his chagrin wrote in all his columns castigating his Hausa brothers especially the Muslims amongst them for borrowing and embracing everything Islamic and by implication all the Arab culture whole hog and thereby threw away the whole Maguzawa 'Hausa' culture totally. Please check Dr Aliyu Tilde series on gamji.com for explicit and comprehensive Arab culture and words that have totally displaced and replaced native Hausa language and cultural practices. Hausa actually means "Ya hau Sa'a." literally meaning he is riding a cow. Referring to the Fulbe conqueror that came on his horse to Daura during the conquest of the Hausa land by the Fulbes from Senegal.

For those who may not have the time to go that far, let me freshen your memory and to tell you that more than half of the Hausa language is borrowed language as much as all the Hausa culture is as foreign to Hausa man and land as to the Plateau man, Kogi man, Adamawa man or even Nupe man in Niger state or Kwara state. The Hausa man cannot therefore take pride in telling anybody for that matter that his culture has permeated the North or Middle-belt region. The culture he is claiming to be his is Arab and Fulbe culture pure and simple. I challenge a Hausa man to write anything to the contrary.

The Kaftans for example is a dress that came from Turkey which originated from the Iranian/Iraqi axes over 2000 years. It came to the Hausa land via Senegal when the Islamic jihadists conquered the Hausa land.

Islam as a religion came to the old Bornu empire 1000 years before Usman Dan Fadiyo the Fulani man from Futa Jallon Senegal conquered the Hausa land barely 200 years ago. If there is any group in Nigeria who should pride in Islam, it is the Kanuri man who accepted Islam on his own terms but certainly not a group that was conquered by the Fulanis and had the religion forced down their throats. Of course the long cap called the Zanna Bukar has its origin yet again with the Kanuris and that is why it is called "Zanna Bukar". From there it reached the Hausa land. Even "Babanriga" is a Tuoareg and Barbers attire which originated from the middle-east originally came to Northern Nigeria via Senegal and of course Islam.

I cannot remember of any name now that is pure Hausa language in origin as all the Hausa names that I remember are all bastardised Arabic names or borrowed literally. Name them, Adamu, Nuhu, Ali, Ibrahim, Iliyasu, Dauda, Suleiman, Hassan, Hussein, Talatu, Danjuma, Ladi, Saidu, Abubukar, Usman Asabe, Mohammadu, etc. All the above are the corrupted forms of Arabic and in fact Jewish names. Iliyasu for example is the corrupted form of Eliyahu in Jewish language which literally means "The Lord is God!" All the names of the days of the week from Ladi, Litinin, Talata, Laraba, Alhamis, Juma'a, and Asabar are all corrupted Arabic words which the early Hausa men couldn't pronounce properly when they were forced to convert to Islam. Therefore for any Hausa writer to falsely lay claim to these Arabic words as Hausa words is tantamount to stealing and a disservice to humanity.

Just like the Hausa man again has borrowed a lot of words and culture from the Yoruba language. Words like 'Ashana', matches, 'Gele', Scarf, 'Ali Gogoro', originally Onile Gogoro in Yoruba language are all borrowed words and culture. Just like after admiring the Nollywood films for sometimes, the Kano guys have crafted the Kannywood.

As for entrepreneurship, I am yet to understand what the average Hausa man is bragging about? Is the Maigadi, watchman job? Is it the Mai ruwa job, water vendor; Is it the Dan achaba job? Is it the Shoe shiner Job? Is it the Mai shayi job? Is it the Motor park tout job? Or is it the almajiri system? These are jobs anybody anywhere can do any day without formal training. That is why most of the Hausas are ready made tools to be used to forment religious crises any time any day because most of the jobs they do are casual and therefore they lazy around. When it comes to entrepreneurship, we have to look up to the Igbo and Yoruba people. The major reason why the Hausa man is always quick to riot and burn people's property is the fact that he has nothing to lose. Since he is always a mai guard, mai ruwa or mai shayi. He envies others and therefore is quick to burn the market like the Jos main market, Bukuru main market or Katako market.

I advise my Hausa brother to seriously teach his children that more than half of all Hausa words are Arabic words while about a quarter are borrowed from the Yoruba language. It is important to make it clear here that the Fulani is actually distinct from the Hausa man. They may have the Islamic religion to some degree in common.

The Hausa man should sheath his pride for now for more than half of his language is borrowed from Arabic, half of his culture and way of dressing is not native to Hausa but originated from Senegal and Middle East. Only the Yorubas and the Kanuris can glow with pride for maintaining their culture but certainly not the Hausa man who behaves like the Hankaka, (the Raven).

For more information please read the History of West Africa from AD 1000.

Thanks for your time,

Ndiameeh Babrik,

ndiame_2005@yahoo.co.uk

Bode Eluyera
Feb 18, 2010, 03:54 AM
Eja, thanks a lot for your very enlightening posts. In actual fact, the thread is not about The Nupes per se. It's a continuation of an article about the major ethnic groups in Kogi state. So, please feel free to post more comments.

Mikky jaga
Feb 18, 2010, 07:28 AM
All (Particularly Bode)

The more we explore this topic, the more we come to understand that the Hausas and most of the indigeneous peoples of Northern Nigeria were themselves colonized by the Fulanis.

The more we will also realize that Fulani spread into other parts of Nigeria (including Yorubaland) was mostly through proxies. They convert a set of people and then use them to subjugate the next. E.g Convert the Nupes to subjugate Kwara and Kogi.

The Fulah Jihads

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fula_jihads

So, because the British had an empire that ran from the East to the West, the British do not have their homeland again?

Thanks Bode for the article posted, it explains a lot why the Hausaman is content with answering Hausa/Fulani and the Nupe man is taking steps to enforce his separate identity. The Fulanis met a lazy and indolent people in the Hausas and went ahead to bastardize everything about the people even to the extent of erasing their indigenous culture. They are therefore content to be an appendage of a long lost Fulani Empire.

Well, the Yorubas are different. A million years of Fulani rule and interactions in both Kogi and Ilorin will never dilute not to talk of erasing the culture of omoluwabi. Rather, the Fulani usurpers in Ilorin are now adding Yoruba names to theirs in other to be acceptable.

A conference of ethnic Nationalities is the solution to the present neo-colonialism by some minoritry groups in Nigeria today.

Bode Eluyera
Feb 19, 2010, 01:16 AM
So, because the British had an empire that ran from the East to the West, the British do not have their homeland again?

Thanks Bode for the article posted, it explains a lot why the Hausaman is content with answering Hausa/Fulani and the Nupe man is taking steps to enforce his separate identity. The Fulanis met a lazy and indolent people in the Hausas and went ahead to bastardize everything about the people even to the extent of erasing their indigenous culture. They are therefore content to be an appendage of a long lost Fulani Empire.

Well, the Yorubas are different. A million years of Fulani rule and interactions in both Kogi and Ilorin will never dilute not to talk of erasing the culture of omoluwabi. Rather, the Fulani usurpers in Ilorin are now adding Yoruba names to theirs in other to be acceptable.

A conference of ethnic Nationalities is the solution to the present neo-colonialism by some minoritry groups in Nigeria today.

Mikky, thanks again for your comment. I completely agree with you. I just want to add that the Fulanis bear Yoruba names not necessaryly because they crave for our acceptance but mainly because they want to make the process of identifying or differentiating true Yorubas - bonafide owners of Kwara and Kogi states, real sons and daughters of the soil - from imposers/invaders which, if we are to be honest the Hausas and Fulanis are. Take for example, Gambari, the former permanent representative of Nigeria
in the U.N., who bears 'Agboola.'

Sooner or later, when the chips are down, Gambari and the emir of Ilorin and their brethrens, will all have to pack their backs and go back to where they are 'originally' from - if at all they have such a place. They can bear 10 Yoruba names and even speak Yoruba better than the indigenes, it won't help them because the indigenes know all the imposers and are just waiting for the right time to get rid of them for good. I am glad to say that that time is fast approacging and my advise for Gambari and other invaders/imposers is to start preparing their long journey back to Futa Jallon now because they may not have enough time to do so when the indigenes come knocking at their doors.

A word is enough for the wise!!!

Bode Eluyera
Mar 5, 2010, 12:42 AM
Yoruba in Kwara, Kogi agitate for Oya state


From LAYI OLANREWAJU, Ilorin

Thursday, March 4, 2010

The Yoruba speaking communities in Kwara and Kogi states have called on the Federal Government to create a new state for them named Oya.


The appeal was made at this year's Igbomina Day celebration in Kwara State.

The guest speaker at the event, Architect Tunde Ogunniyi, who made the call, stated that over the years, the agitation for the creation of the state, had been bogged down by insufficient and inconsistent will and dedication.

Ogunniyi in his paper entitled, "Igbomina land; a conducive environment for development," bemoaned what he referred to as "lack of common focus and unity to achieve our full emancipation and freedom."

He said,: "Our fundamental declaration on our request for Oya state (Yorubas of Kwara and Kogi) remains unassailable. ‘The grouping of Yoruba speaking people into two separate geo-political zones (South West and North central) is an absurdity and an attempt to deprive the Yoruba speaking people of Kwara and Kogi states of North Central zone the opportunity of their rights in the scheme of things.'

"The declaration had been pursued for over five decades without success because we lacked sufficient and consistent will and dedication of our large communities. Yet we had the material and human resources to succeed. We had even opportunities and positions at our disposal in times past which were not marshaled to our advantage for lack of cooperation and understanding amongst our leaders," he said.

BEEG EAGLE
May 5, 2010, 05:12 PM
You are correct. The Etsu Nupe is a retired Brigadier General who only set aside aside his uniform to ascend the throne of his forefathers. Ditto the Sultan of Sokoto, also a retired Brigadier General who was in service until he had to answer the call of his people.The Sultan was classmates with General Dambazau, the incumbent Chief of Army Staff at Barewa College, Zaria.

Both the Sultan and the Etsu belong to the Armoured Corps. They are ECOMOG veterans

Uncle Sam
Oct 17, 2010, 04:45 AM
You are correct. The Etsu Nupe is a retired Brigadier General who only set aside aside his uniform to ascend the throne of his forefathers. Ditto the Sultan of Sokoto, also a retired Brigadier General who was in service until he had to answer the call of his people.The Sultan was classmates with General Dambazau, the incumbent Chief of Army Staff at Barewa College, Zaria.

Both the Sultan and the Etsu belong to the Armoured Corps. They are ECOMOG veterans

Very interesting historical perspective. I did not read all contributions but I sure read deepthought's.


Just like most Yoruba history claim that Oduduwa arrived/descended from heaven, I am here saying that Oduduwa is a Bini Prince who went and conquered and ruled the Yoruba and later sent his son as an Oba to Bini.