Having exhaustively demonstrated that the Pharaonic Egyptians were black, Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop argued that “the moral fruit of [Egyptian] civilization is to be counted among the assets of the Black world. Instead of presenting itself to history as an insolvent debtor, that Black world is the very initiator of the ‘western’ civilization flaunted before our eyes today.” -- [Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. xiv]

To help us appreciate just how much “western” civilization owes to Black Egypt, this essay presents a sampling of that contribution; a sampling of what the Greeks and Hebrews assimilated and took over from Black Egypt (Kemet) and passed on to modern Europe.

Kemetic Precedents

The purpose of this preliminary list of culture items (concepts, techniques, tools, symbols, artefacts, etc. assembled from scattered sources) is to make it easy to see just how far and comprehensively Kemet was ahead of all other cultures. Such items appear elsewhere later, sometimes by diffusion, sometimes

by independent invention, sometimes by theft. How it did so in each case is not always easy to determine. However, in some spectacular cases, plagiarism can be exposed. Items listed are the oldest example extant, or the oldest mentioned in the available sources. Dates are based on the Chinweizu Chronology which dates the founding of Kemet at 4443±61 BC. This initial list could be, and should be, very much expanded as the literature is combed more extensively and thoroughly.

I:  Science and Technology

1.         Plant domestication:

Domesticated wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, capers and dates were being grown and harvested in the Nile flood plains; at Aswan (Wadi Kubbaniya), Esna, Naqada, and Dishna in Upper Kemet (i.e. Southern Egypt), and in Tushka in Nubia; ca. 16,000 BC, during the last Ice Age when much of Eurasia was covered with ice. That was some 9 millennia before plant domestication occurred in Jarmo in Iraqi Kurdistan in SW Eurasia, where Eurocentric convention claims that plants were first domesticated.1[1  See Wendorff et al., “An Ancient Harvest on the Nile,” in Van Sertima, ed., Blacks in Science, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1983, pp. 58-64. ]

2.       Writing:

Hieroglyphics (pictorial) : Predynastic 2  i.e. before ca. 4500 BC. [2 See Bruce

Williams, “Lost Pharaohs of Nubia” in Van Sertima ed., Egypt Revisited, pp. 93-

94.]

Hieratic (cursive) : Dyn. I or earlier 3, i.e. ca. 4500 BC. [3  M. Hoffman, Egypt

Before the Pharaohs, p. 290; Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p.22.]

Demotic (cursive) : Dyn XXV 4, i.e. ca. 700 BC. [4  Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the

Pharaohs, p. 21].

Alphabet: “The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. The first pure alphabet emerged around

2000 BCE to represent the language of Semitic workers in Egypt (see Middle

Bronze Age alphabets), and was derived from the alphabetic principles of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Most alphabets in the world today either descend directly from this development, for example the Greek and Latin alphabets, or were inspired by its design.”--Wikipedia

Hieroglyphics and Hieratic are the world’s oldest writing systems; from them are derived the Phoenician and Hebrew and Greek alphabets, making them the ancestors of the Roman alphabet which is now used world-wide.5  [5Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, pp. 25-26.] From them too derive the Arabic script via the Nabataean Aramaic script. Arabic numerals bear a striking resemblance to some of the symbols in Meroitic script, a late offshoot of the Kemetic scripts.

3.        The balance and scales (for weighing):

A symbol in hieroglyphics, and a central instrument in the rite of weighing the soul of the deceased in the Judgment Hall before Ausar. 6 [6 E. A. Wallis

Budge, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, pp. 2, 256, 261 etc. for its representation as a

hieroglyph and for its presence in vignettes that illustrate the book. For evidence that parts of the work date back to before Dyn. I, see p. xii.]

The doctrine of the Judgment Day, and its symbolism, most probably date back to predynastic times; the scale is, therefore, probably a predynastic invention.

4.       The Calendar:

Kemet had two calendars from its earliest times -- the Civil calendar of 365 days to the year; and the Astronomical or Sopde (Sirius) calendar of 365.25 days to the year. These two were together in use by Dyn. I, and certainly before 4241

BC. Both were most probably invented in Predynastic times. 7 [7 Charles Finch,

“Science and Symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Egypt Revisited, p. 328] The calendar used today throughout the world is adapted from the civil calendar of Black Egypt. “To the Egyptians we owe the practice of dividing the day into 24 hours.

Our modern practice of starting the day at midnight dates back to the Egyptians.”

8—[8 John Pappademos, “An Outline of Africa’s Role in the History of Physics”, in

Van Sertima ed., Blacks in Science, p. 187]

5.  The oldest uninscribed paper:

Two papyrus rolls from Dyn. I, found in a small box at Saqqara.9 [9 M. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, p. 291]

6.  The wheel:

Scaling ladders, fitted with wheels, and kept from slipping by a handspike, were used by construction workers as early as Dyn. V. (ca. 3380-3162 BC). They

are depicted on the wall of the tomb of Kaemhesit. 10 [10 See  Blacks in Science, p.

81, fig. 7.]

7.        The so-called Pythagoras Theroem:

The theorem of the square on the hypothenuse was known and used in Kemet, millennia before Pythagoras took knowledge of it from there to Greece.11 [11 Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p. 260]

8.       Coordinates:

A system of coordinates was in use in Kemet in Old Kingdom times. In one specimen, probably from Dyn. III, coordinates were used in an architectural drawing to draw a curve. Rectangular coordinate grids were used for star maps shown on the ceilings of tombs. A grid of squares was used to scale up construction plans. 12 [12 See Beatrice Lumpkin, “The Pyramids: Ancient Showcase of African science and technology,” Blacks in Science, pp. 67-83. ]

9.       The Oldest record of sea-going ships:

King Sahure of Dyn. V sent a fleet to the coast of Palestine and another to Punt (Somalia).13 [13 See Wayne B. Chandler, “Of Gods and Men: Egypt’s Old Kingdom,” in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited,  p. 168.]

10.     The oldest map in the world:

A map, now in the Turin museum, showing the road to one of Kemet’s gold fields.14 [14 Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs., p. 42.]

11.      The oldest example of large-scale metal sculpture in the world:

A near life-size copper statue group of Pepi I and his young son Merenre

(Dyn. VI).15 [15 See M. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, p. 128.]

12.      Stone-paved roads:

“Probably the earliest stone-paved road was built in Egypt . . . when the Great Pyramid was built. In order to move the huge stone blocks making up the pyramid, a smooth road of polished stone was built about 60 feet wide and half a mile long.”16 [16 See “Road” in Britannica Junior Encyclopedia, Vol 13, (1965),

p. 109(b)

13.      Iron and steel:

Iron was used in Kemet from predynastic times and down through the dynasties, long before its reported use anywhere else in the world. Specimens of materials made of iron have survived from the Gerzean period, Dyns IV,VI,

XVIII-XXII.17 [17 C. A. Diop, The African Origin of Civilization, p. 293, n. 8;] The most

ancient steel object extant, made of successive layers containing different percentages of carbon, is a knife from Kemet, made probably in the 9th c. BC.18 [18

C. A. Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism, p. 285.] Plutarch reports, based on Manetho,

that iron was called “the bone of Typhon,” i.e. Set.19  [19 Manetho, p. 191,] There are references to “bat qemau,” iron of the south, in the Kemetic Book of Resurrection.20  [20 See, e.g. Budge, Egyptian Book Of the Dead, p. 13.]

14.      Gunpowder:

Gunpowder was known and used in Kemet by the priests, but “solely for religious purposes at rites such as the Mysteries of Osiris.”21 [21 C. A. Diop, The African Origin of Civilization, p. 24.]

15.      Glider plane:

A scale model of a glider, made of sycamore wood, survives from Kemet. It measures 18 cm x 14 cm, and is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The name of the maker of the model is Pa-di-Imen.22 [22 See Khalil Messiha et. al., “African experimental aeronautics: a 2,000-year-old model glider,” in Blacks in Science, pp. 92-

99.]

Aeronautical scientists have examined it and confirmed that it is a model glider. The date it was made is uncertain.

16.      Atomic theory, heliocentricity, and gravitation:

There is evidence that these major theories of modern science were, long ago, known to Kemetic science. Isaac Newton left his written testimony about Kemetic knowledge thereof.23 [23 See John Pappademos, “The Newtonian synthesis in physical science and its roots in the Nile Valley,” Nile Valley Civilizations: 84-101, see especially p. 94 for quotes from Newton himself; and also Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol. I,  p. 167.]

•    TO BE CONTINUED (1520 words)

The  Black Power Pan-Africanist Perspective

By Chinweizu

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.ail.com

 

The Black race will be exterminated

if it does not build a black superpower in Africa by the end of this century.

Black Egypt:

Rehabilitating the self-image of the Black African (2)

Having exhaustively demonstrated that the Pharaonic Egyptians were black, Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop argued that “the moral fruit of [Egyptian] civilization is to be counted among the assets of the Black world. Instead of presenting itself to history as an insolvent debtor, that Black world is the very initiator of the ‘western’ civilization flaunted before our eyes today.” -- [Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. xiv]

This essay presents a sampling of culture items (concepts, techniques, tools, symbols, artefacts, etc.) which the Greeks and Hebrews learned, borrowed or plagiarized from Black Egypt (Kemet) and passed on to modern Europe.

I:  Science and Technology (contd.)

17.      The oldest textbook on human anatomy:

According to Manetho, Teti, the second king of Dyn. I, was a physician and wrote a textbook on anatomy.24 [24 Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p. 430, n.3.]

18.     The oldest extant work of systematic anatomy and manual of traumatic surgery:

The so-called Edwin Smith Papyrus, which dates from Dyn. XVIII, (ca. 16th

c. BC), is a late copy of an Old Kingdom original. The advanced nature of the work may be indicated by some of what it contains: the internal anatomy of the head, a description of the external appearance of the brain, the meninges and their functions, the cerebrospinal fluid, the hippocampus.25 [25 Charles S. Finch III, “Science and symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited, pp.325-351.]

19.      Pulse taking:

This was a technique of Kemetic medicine by Old Kingdom times, as evident in the Ebers and the Edwin Smith medical papyri.26 [26 Charles S. Finch III, “Science and symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited,

p. 327.]

20.     Bone setting techniques:

Some techniques, such as the methods for setting clavicular fractures and reducing a dislocated mandible, are described in the Edwin Smith papyrus.27 [27

Charles S. Finch III, “Science and symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Ivan Van Sertima,

ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 326.]

21. The clinical method:

The sequenced method in healing comprising of an examination, a diagnosis, a prognosis and a treatment was in use in Kemet by, at least, the time of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, 35 centuries before Hippocrates.28 [28 Charles S.

Finch III, “Science and symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt

Revisited, p. 342]

22.     The oldest known book on embalming:

This is The Book of What Pertains to Embalming which is cited as a reference in the Edwin Smith Papyrus.29 [29 Charles S. Finch III, “Science and symbol in Egyptian Medicine,” in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 335.]

23.     The Zodiac:

The zodiac probably goes back to predynastic times, to the period when the Kemetic calendars were invented. This is implicit in the Kemetic cycle of the Great Year of 25,868 years. Knowledge of the twelve ages of the zodiac gave rise to the changes of state symbolism and cults in Kemet, from the bull cult in the Age of the Bull (Taurus), during which Kemet was founded, to the ram cult in the

Age of the Ram (Aries). An example of the schema of the zodiac was incorporated in the Temple of Het-her (Hathor to the Greeks) which was built ca. 100 BC to replace an earlier one, built ca. 1600 BC, on the same site.30 [30 Charles S. Finch, “The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, pp. 182, 186.]

II:   Religion and philosophy

24.    The oldest religious texts:

The Pyramid texts of late Dynasty V and Dynasty VI (ca.3200-2956 BC) have been described as “the world’s oldest surviving corpus of religious and funerary writings.”31 [31 Encyclopaedia Britannica (1965) Vol. 18, p. 793 (B)]

25.     The Oldest versions of the Creation Story:

These are versions of the Kemetic creation story. The Mennefer Recension (Memphite to the Greeks) dates to the Old Kingdom and probably to Dyn. I, to the time of Mena whose unification of the Two Lands to form Kemet is one of its themes.  A copy of an Old Kingdom edition is on the Shabaka Stone (25th Dyn.); it was carved after an earlier copy, on papyrus or leather, was found to be worm- eaten.32 [32 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. I , p. 51.]

The Annu Recension is probably just as old or older. Fragments appear in the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, which were carved on tomb walls; they also appear in some papyrus texts, such as the Bremmer Rhind Papyrus.33 [33 See Theophile Obenga, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 304.]

The doctrine of creation by the word of the first of the gods is part of the Kemetic cosmogony, as is evident in the Mennefer Recension where it is said that “it (the heart) is what makes it possible for every conceived thing to come out,

and it is the tongue which repeats what has been thought in the heart. Thus all the gods, Atum and his Ennead were created. For all divine speech came forth through what the heart thought and what the tongue commanded.”34  [34 See Theophile Obenga, in Ivan Van Sertima ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 311. ]

That was the Kemetic antecedent for “And God said, let there be light” of the Old Testament, and for the “In the beginning was the word . . .” of the New Testament.

26.     The doctrine of the Resurrection and Eternal Life after Death:

This complex of doctrines includes the judgement of the soul of the dead before the god Ausar, the resurrection of the soul, the reunion of body and

soul, the ascension into heaven, and life everlasting among the gods in the

fields of paradise. It is a central part of Kemetic religion, and is based on the story of the suffering, mutilation and death of Ausar (Osiris to the Greeks) at the hands of his rival Set (Satan to the Christians), and the subsequent resurrection of his transformed and glorified body.

Though most probably Predynastic in origin, its oldest recension is the Annu Recension, as compiled by the College of Priests at Annu (the Annu or Ani of the Egyptologists/the Heliopolis of the Greeks/the On of the Hebrews) and carved on the walls of the Pyramid of Unas, the last Pharaoh of the 5th Dynasty.

Other recensions include the Recension of Waset (Thebes to the Greeks), which was compiled into the book  Per em Hru, (a work whose title properly translates as The Book of Coming Forth by Day, or as The Book of Resurrection, rather than as The Egyptian Book of the Dead). The Waset Recension is preserved in papyrus copies from the 18th Dynasty: e.g. the Papyrus of Ani. It is a guide book for the soul on its way to resurrection.35 [35 For the Pyramid Texts (excerpts) see Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. I,; and for the Papyrus of Ani, see E. A. Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, particularly the chapters of the introduction that discuss ‘The Legend of Osiris’ and ‘The Doctrine of Eternal Life’.]

27.     The Trinity:

Some of the trinities (triads of gods) in Kemetic religion are:

a)  Ausar-Ise-Heru (the Osiris-Isis-Horus of the Greeks) – the Great

Triad of Abtu (Abydos to the Greeks)

b) Amen-Mut-Khensu (the Amon, Mut and Chons of the Greeks) -- the Great Triad of Waset (Thebes to the Greeks)36 [36 E. A. Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. II, p. 33.]

However,

c) Ra, Shu and Tefnut were “the first divine trinity in the history of religion.” The first god, Ra, when he spat out Shu and coughed up Tefnut, declared: “I was one; I became three”!37 [37 C.A. Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p. 342.]

Whereas ( c ) is a trinity formed by an uncreated god and the two gods created by him,

( a ) and ( b) are Husband-Wife-Son families of gods. These Kemetic trinities

were the  antecedents for the Christian Trinity of God the father, God the son and God the Holy Spirit.

28.  The Madonna and Child (The Venerated symbol of Motherhood):

Throughout Kemetic history, as part of the Ausarean core of their religion, the Kemites venerated the Ise-Heru pair from the Ausar-Ise-Heru trinity. This pair, the Virgin Mother of God holding her child-god, is the prototype of the

Black Madonna and Child which was widespread in European Christendom as

the symbol of motherhood; the latter was then superseded by the white Madonna and Child. Ise worship remained popular in Kemet even after the land was conquered by Persians, Greeks and Romans. In fact, Ise worship (the Cult of the

Black Madonna) was the most popular cult in the entire Roman empire before the Christian emperors suppressed all non-Christian cults in the early 6th century AD 38 [38 Danita Redd, “Black Madonnas of Europe,” in Van Sertima, ed., African Presence in Early Europe, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1985, pp. 108-

133. ]

•    TO BE CONTINUED (1491 words)

The  Black Power Pan-Africanist Perspective

By Chinweizu

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.ail.com

 

The Black race will be exterminated

if it does not build a black superpower in Africa by the end of this century.

Black Egypt:

Rehabilitating the self-image of the Black African (3)

Having exhaustively demonstrated that the Pharaonic Egyptians were black, Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop argued that “the moral fruit of [Egyptian] civilization is to be counted among the assets of the Black world. Instead of presenting itself to history as an insolvent debtor, that Black world is the very initiator of the ‘western’ civilization flaunted before our eyes today.” -- [Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. xiv]

This essay presents a sampling of culture items (concepts, techniques, tools, symbols, artefacts, etc.) which the Greeks and Hebrews learned, borrowed or plagiarized from Black Egypt (Kemet) and passed on to modern Europe.

II:   Religion and philosophy (contd.)

29.     The benefit of dying in the holy city:

It was said of Waset, the holy city, that to die there was to earn a place in paradise; a claim made much later for Mecca by the Islamic religion. A 19th Dynasty papyrus said: “Happy is he who comes to die at Waset, the abode of Maat, the place of Silence. . . . Happiness to him who comes to die here! He will be a divine soul!”39 [39 See Asa G. Hilliard III, “Waset, the Eye of Ra and the Abode of Maat,” in Ivan van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited, p.211.]

30.    Immaculate Conception:

The immaculate conception of the Apis Bull was part of Kemetic religion. The Apis Bull was a god which periodically became incarnate among the Kemites in the form of a calf born through immaculate conception. According to Herodotus, “the Egyptian belief is that a flash of light descends upon the cow from heaven, and this causes her to conceive Apis.”40 [40 Herodotus, The Histories, Penguin Classics (1996 revised edition), p. 165.]

Here we find the precedent for the Christian doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary by the Holy Ghost.

31.      The Virgin Mother:

The Virgin Ise, mother of Heru the imperfect, imperfect because he is born of the mother only, without the participation of a father.41 [41 Charles S. Finch,

“The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, p. 181.]

Here we find the precedent for the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus who was born of the mother only, without participation by his putative father Joseph.

32.     The doctrine of the Son of God:

The doctrine that the Pharaoh is the son of Re (Re-Atum), the Sun god, became an established part of Kemetic theology of the state by the end of Dyn. V. [ca. 3094 BC] when it was presented in the Pyramid Texts of Unas.42  [42

Wayne B. Chandler, “Of gods and men: Egypt’s old kingdom,” in Ivan Van Sertima,

ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 168; Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. I, pp.30-32 ]

33.     The Nativity of the Pharaoh:

The nativity of the Pharaoh--the annunciation, conception, birth and adoration of the child pharaoh--was one of the two central pillars of the royal ideology of the Kemetic state. The other was resurrection and ascension of his spirit into heaven to join the other gods in paradise. The four stages of the nativity of the Pharaoh, as depicted on a Kemetic temple wall more than a

millennium before the invention of Christianity, are the precedent for the nativity

of Jesus. According to Charles Finch,

“In the Temple of Amen at Luxor, there is a group of four vignettes

depicting the birth of the infant pharaoh, who as the god-king or divine king is an avatar of Horus. In the first scene, Thoth, the announcer and

messenger of the gods, proclaims to the royal mother the impending birth of

a son who is descended from the god Amen and will reign as the divine king. In the first chapter of Luke, verses 26-38, the messenger angel Gabriel announces to Mary the impending birth of a divine king, the Son of God. In the second scene of Luxor, the god Kneph, who personifies Breath as Spirit, hold the ankh, the symbol of life, to the mouth of the royal mother, indicating that she is conceiving by the power of Spirit. In the Gospel of Matthew, Mary is made pregnant by the ‘power of the Holy Spirit.’ In the third scene at Luxor, the divine child is born corresponding to the birth of the divine child at Bethlehem. In the final scene at Luxor, the gods gather around the infant to praise and adore him. In the second chapter of Luke, verses 13-14, the heavenly hosts gather above the infant Jesus to praise and

adore him.” 43[43 Charles S. Finch, “The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in

Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, pp. 181-182; and Fig. 1 on p. 180]

34.     The Krst/Karast and the Mesia/Messiah:

In Kemetic mortuary rites, the Krst was the anointed mummy which was identified with the resurrected Ausar. The Mesia, i.e. Mes-ia, was the reborn, the chief prince, the son of Ia. Here we find the origins of the Greek term Kristos and Hebrew term Messiah of Christianity.44 [44 Charles S. Finch, “The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, pp. 193-194.]

35.     The Virgin Birth:

The doctrine that Heru was born of the virgin was symbolic of the astronomical fact that the birthday of Heru, in his solar aspect, was December 25, the day the sun begins its ascent towards its zenith at the summer solstice on

June 21st. During the zodiac Age of Aries, 2410-255 BC, the constellation Virgo, “the Virgin,” was on the eastern horizon on December 25 when the sun rose, hence the sun, and therefore Heru in his solar aspect, was said to be “born of the virgin.”45 [45 Charles S. Finch, “The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, p. 183.]

This birthday, with its symbolism and metaphor, was adopted by the founders of Christianity and transferred to Jesus.

36.     Set/Set-an:

In the Ausarean drama of Kemetic religion, Set was the adversary and destroyer of Ausar. In Christian theology, Set appears as Satan, the evil one, the

adversary of God.46 [46 Charles S. Finch, “The Kamitic genesis of Christianity”, in

Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Nile Valley Civilizations, pp. 181, 197.]

37.     Judgment Day:

The doctrine of judgment day, when the soul of the dead is examined, and rewarded or punished by the assembly of the gods, is the centerpiece of the Kemetic resurrection drama. It constitutes the famous chapter 125 of the Wasetian Recension of the Kemetic Book of the Resurrection (alias the Egyptian Book of the Dead).

38.     Paradise, Hell and Purgatory:

In Kemetic cosmography, Tuat was the abode of the dead. Some parts of the Tuat were populated by monsters and fiends, including serpents, scorpions and winged monsters, and the darkness was so thick that it was palpable. Another part of the Tuat was the Seket-Aanru, the abode of Ausar, where the vindicated and beatified souls lived a peaceful life of plenty and enjoyed an abundance of good food of all kinds.47 [47 Wallis Budge, Egyptian Book of the Dead,

pp. cxxx and cxxxvi.] The part of the Tuat populated by serpents and monsters and jailers stoking the flames that will consume the unvindicated soul is depicted on the walls of the tomb of Seti I of Dyn. XIX. (ca. 1300 BC).48 [48 C. A. Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p. 332, Fig. 75.]

In the story of Setne Khamwas and Si-Osire, in the seventh hall,

“Setne saw the mysterious form of Osiris, the great god, seated on his throne of fine gold, crowned with the atef-crown. Anubis, the great god, was on his left, the great god Thoth was on his right, and the gods of the tribunal of the inhabitants

of the netherworld stood on his left and right. The balance stood in the center

before them, and they weighed the good deeds against the misdeeds, Thoth, the great god, writing, while Anubis gave the information to his colleague. He who would be found to have more misdeeds than good deeds is handed over to the Devourer, who belongs to the lord of the netherworld. His ba is destroyed together with his body, and he is not allowed to breathe ever again. He who would be found to have more good deeds than misdeeds is taken in among the gods of the tribunal of the lord of the netherworld, while his ba goes to the sky together with the august spirits. He who would be found to have good deeds equal to his misdeeds is taken in among the excellent spirits who serve Sokar- Osiris.” 49 [49 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. III, p. 140.]

The three regions of the Tuat, to one of which the soul of the deceased may be sent, are the Kemetic precedents for the much later Christian paradise, hell

and purgatory. The Seket-Aanru is the model for the Elysian Fields of the Greeks.50 [50 C. A. Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p. 331; Budge, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, p. cxxxvi.]

NOTE: The items in this section make abundantly clear to what extent the concepts and doctrines of Christianity are derived from those of Kemetic religion.

•    TO BE CONTINUED (1528 words)

The  Black Power Pan-Africanist Perspective

By Chinweizu

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.ail.com

 

The Black race will be exterminated

if it does not build a black superpower in Africa by the end of this century.

Black Egypt:

Rehabilitating the self-image of the Black African (4)

Having exhaustively demonstrated that the Pharaonic Egyptians were black, Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop argued that “the moral fruit of [Egyptian] civilization is to be counted among the assets of the Black world. Instead of presenting itself to history as an insolvent debtor, that Black world is the very initiator of the ‘western’ civilization flaunted before our eyes today.” -- [Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. xiv]

This essay presents a sampling of culture items (concepts, techniques, tools, symbols, artefacts, etc.) which the Greeks and Hebrews learned, borrowed or plagiarized from Black Egypt (Kemet) and passed on to modern Europe.

III: Miscellenous – literature, arts, symbols, games, etc.

39.     The earliest known recorded event:

A description, on a Predynastic storage jar from Qustul, of a conflict between Ta-Seti and Nekhen, some five generations or more before Mena’s unification of Kemet, i.e. ca. 4600 BC. 51 [51 Bruce Williams, “Lost Pharaohs of Nubia” in Van Sertima ed., Egypt Revisited, p. 103.]

40.     The world’s oldest historical text:

A book of annals of the Pharaohs carved in stone, now existing in fragments the principal one of which is in Palermo, Italy, and is called The Palermo Stone by Egyptologists. Some other fragments are in the Cairo Museum. It dates from the

5th Dynasty.52

[52 Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, pp. 62-64.]

41.      The Oldest Book of Wisdom in the World:

The Instructions of Ptahhotep, a work by a 5th Dyn. Vizier/chief minister. A Middle Kingdom copy exists on the Papyrus Prisse in Paris.53 [53 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol I, p. 61.]

42.   The oldest documented Foundation:

An endowment of estates to a temple of Knum by Pharaoh Djoser in the

3rd Dynasty.54  [54 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. III, pp. 94-

100.] A copy of the document was made on a granite rockface at the first cataract.

43.     The oldest surviving charter granting tax exemption:

Pepi I’s charter for his mother’s chapel, from Dyn. VI.55 [55 Miriam Lichtheim,

Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. I, p. 28.]

44.     The oldest Illuminated (i.e. color illustrated) Manuscripts:

Papyri of the 18th Dynasty, e.g. the Papyrus of Ani, containing texts as well as vignettes and borders in bright colors such as reds, greens, yellows and white. Some are of considerable length, from 20 to 90 feet, and 14 to 18 inches wide.56

[56 E. A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Book of the Dead, pp. xxviii, cxlv.]

45.     The Blindfold of Justice:

Maat, the personification of Justice, Truth and Righteousness “is sometimes represented blind-fold”.57 [57 Budge, Egyptian Book of the Dead., p. 246, n. 5; and the introduction for discussion of the probable predynastic origins of the Resurrection concepts and rites in which the scales and blindfold appear.]

The practice most probably dates back to Predynastic times when the doctrine of

Judgment Day was established.

46.     The Caduceus (Staff with entwined snake as symbol of healing):

It was the staff of Tehuti in his role as the God of Medicine.

“The snake was a potent symbol of renewal and resurrection because of its ability to slough old skin for new. This made it one of the earliest healing types.” -

- Charles Finch58 [58 Charles Finch, “Imhotep the Physician: Archetype of the Great

Man”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Great Black Leaders: Ancient and Modern, p. 225.  See illustration on p. 227 for the serpent-twined staff in Tehuti’s hand.]

In Kemetic iconography, Tehuti is represented with a serpent-entwined staff in his hand. This, like most iconography of the most ancient Kemetic gods, probably dates back to Predynastic times.

47.     The Star of Creation:

This six-pointed star was, originally, the Kemetic symbol of the cosmic symmetry in the universe between the solar and stellar realms above, and the terrestrial and sub-terrestrial realms below. It was called the star of creation. It was adopted by the Jews as their symbol only in the last few centuries. It was “the Hermetic symbol of the interlaced triangles (now erroneously called the star

triangle pointing down representing the descent into matter. Known by the Egyptians as the star of creation, it also embodies the axiom ‘as above, so below’. That which we see in our solar or macro system with the Sun as its center and the several planets which orbit around it, we also see in the micro system or cosm in the minute atom . . .59  [59 Wayne Chandler, “Of Gods and Men: Egypt’s Old Kingdom”, in Ivan Van Sertima, ed., Egypt Revisited, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1989, p. 153.]

And according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, “The symbol -- which historically was not limited to use by the Jews -- originated in antiquity when, side by side with the five-pointed star, it served as a magical sign or as a decoration. . . . The Jewish community of Prague was the first to use the Star of David as its official symbol, and from the 17th century on, the six-pointed star became the official seal of many Jewish communities and a general sign of Judaism, though it has no biblical or Talmudic authority.60 [60 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, Micropaedia, Vol. 3, 1993, p. 911.]

48.     The game of checkers/draughts:

Predynastic boards and pieces for the game of checkers have been found by archeologists.61 [61 John A. Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, pp. 26-27.]

III: Miscellenous – literature, arts, symbols, games, etc.

49.     Literary themes:

Some of the famous themes in Greek and Christian literature have precedents in Kemetic stories. For example, in the story of Setne Khamwas and Si-Osire the following are found:

(a) The rich man and poor man who have their fortunes reversed in the afterlife;

(b) The visit to the underworld by a living person led by a guide; (c) The torture wherein the desired food or drink hangs just out of

reach.

The rich man and poor man theme later appears in Luke 16:19-31. The guided visit to the underworld later appears in the stories of Orpheus and of Odysseus and, much much later, in Dante’s Divine Comedy.

The Greek story of Tantalus includes the torture wherein the water and the

fruits he craves always recede just beyond his reach.

Setne Khamwas lived in Dyn. XIX, in the 13th century BC, long before the dates for Jesus and the New Testament, and long before Hesiod and Homer and the rise of Greek literature, in which these themes reappear.

IV:   Plagiarisms in the Bible of the Hebrews

A) The Proverbs of King Solomon and The Teachings of Amenemope:

Texts of the Teachings of Amenemope date back to Dyn. XX, i.e. to the 12th and 11th centuries BC. This was one or two centuries before King Solomon, 10th century BC, the putative author of the Book of Proverbs, and some six centuries before the Book was actually compiled in the 6th century BC, some four centuries after Solomon. Yet, as is displayed in the table below,

“ We find in the book of Proverbs literally dozens of sayings to which

there are parallels, sometimes almost verbal [i.e. word-for-word], in the Teachings of Amenemope as well as, though to a less extent, in other Egyptian Wisdom writings. Among these Psalms, too, i.e. those which partake of a

Wisdom character, there are also parallels; to a less extent, but also noticeably, in

the book of Deuteronomy. To illustrate this fully would take up many pages; we shall, therefore, restrict ourselves to some of the most interesting parallels between the book of Proverbs and The Teachings of Amenomope. Among the various collections of wise sayings gathered together in the former is a short one comprised in xxii. 17--xxiii. 14; it is to this that we now draw attention; the most profitable way of illustrating the parallels will be to place the relative passsages side by side”. 62 [62 W.O.E. Oesterley, “Egypt and Israel”, in S.R.K. Glanville, ed., The Legacy of Egypt, London: Oxford University Press, 1942, pp. 246-248.]