Nigeria: Reform Efforts and the Unresolved Socio-Economic Problems

Introduction

Addressing a nation's socio-economic problems is a Herculean task that requires an in-depth examination of the root causes of the malaise. There have been endless debates on how to tackle Nigeria 's socio-economic challenges yet they remain unresolved. While some people are blaming external factors for the nation's woes others, including this writer, argue that poor governance and institutional factors are the main culprits. External factors are not the cause of the unethical behavior of the leaders and the resultant economic and democratic nightmare. This paper, thus, illustrates how poor governance has combined with corruption to create a weak economy, high unemployment, inflation, poverty and rising crime and dwindling educational standards and offers a solution to Nigeria 's socio-economic problems.

Challenges

One of the aims of any organization or nation is to produce good quality products and services and this is much more manifest and desirable in the present highly competitive global economy. Only organizations or nations whose products and services are of high quality could compete effectively and thrive. There are many forces facing the nation but part of the challenges facing the Nigerian economy poor governance and corruption that has prevented the present administration from tackling the infrastructural decay in the society and the resultant weak economy.

The Nigerian economy is facing myriad challenges, including poor governance. Research of causes of poor governance suggests ways to institute reforms. Nigeria has undertaken some reforms but a review of the reform efforts shows, a posteriori, that the society is deeply corrupt and also lacks effective institutions and good governance for successful reforms for sustainable economic growth and development.

In addition, the society lacks the leaders and a government that is ready, willing, and politically motivated to address the ills in the economy.

Nigerian leaders appear good at prescribing solutions to the nation's economic problems without providing the institutions to make the society work. They make high-sounding promises without fulfilling them; and more often than not their policies are hastily put together and poorly executed. These have affected the nation's economic performance. As Dike (July 22-28, 2006) has noted ‘the political landscape of Nigeria is littered by myriad of unreasoned policies-those that are hastily put together and poorly implemented. They do them, we hear and see them, and judge them every day. Those that are involved in such activities appear to enjoy the nation's underdeveloped status. But, a smell that one person enjoys gives another individual a headache.

Growing evidence shows that the crises bedeviling the nation's political economy could partly be attributed to the authoritarian tendencies of the leaders. For instance, one of key problems facing the Nigerian economy today is that almost every facet of the economy it is being controlled by the President. Growing evidence shows that he is in control of the on-going privatization process and controls the petroleum industry (including pricing of its products). He controls the elections process and determines who should take part in the process and he determines who is corrupt or not. The President decides whether or to implement the national budget, and often spends public fund without seeking approval from the National Assembly. The system lacks checks and balances and the people lack the freedom to challenge the autocratic tendencies of the President.

Nigeria lacks genuine democratic system in which the electorate would participate without coercion and hold the politicians accountable for their actions. And this affects the economy in many ways. As Sen (1999) notes "unfreedoms" leave the people with little choice to exercise "their reasoned agency." And "Freedoms are not only the primary ends of development, they are also among its primary means." Development "requires the removal of major sources of unfreedoms" (Ibid.). Fiscal indiscipline and lack of democratic governance are some of the causes of Nigeria 's weak economy and rising poverty. Another impediment to economic growth and development problems is ethnic and religious crises because the political leaders are hopelessly sunk into their ethnic suspicions as every section is protecting their own, instead of the nation. This undermines the democratization process, governance, national security, and economic activities.

Among the challenges facing the economy is that the system lacks genuine competition. A market-oriented economy is better suited for economic growth and development because genuine capitalistic economies are controlled by market forces and not by personal idiosyncrasies. The leaders of Nigeria are yet to heed the advice of Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that the State should not interfere in the economy. And that the law of supply and demand should be allowed to regulate the economy for the interest of everyone, and not for a privileged few, as is the case in Nigeria .

Inconsistency and unsustainable policies and ‘macroeconomic imbalances' are part of the causes of the present ‘hemorrhage' (Eichengreen, 2004) in the economy. Any keen watcher of the political activities in Nigeria knows that every leader that comes on stage often discards previous programs. Greater part of the problem facing the nation is corruption, which contributes to poor governance and low growth (Rose-Ackerman, 2004). Unfortunately, after years of Independence Nigerians are still walking around with colonial mentality that public money belongs to the "white man" and that any person who has access to public fund should convert it into his or her personal use. Consequently, the society lacks the necessities of life that keep the citizens healthy and productive. Hospitals in Nigeria are ill-equipped and fake drugs are sold to citizens by corrupt traders (Vanguard, March 23, 2007). There is not enough food for the growing population and no stable electricity supply for domestic and business consumption (except from power generators that are too expensive for businesses and often suffocate the users).

Education is an important factor in economic growth and development. But the nation's educational system has been facing myriad challenges, which prevent the system from performing its basic objectives. They problems include inadequate funding and lack of planning and management, poor governance and infrastructure, lack of teaching materials and enough good quality of teachers at all levels, among others. All these have combined to hinder the production of high quality work force to propel the economy (UNESS for Nigeria : 2006-2015). Nigeria needs persons with good quality education and common sense to manage its public and business affairs. As Dike (October 21 & 23, 2006) has noted the state of a nation's educational sector, among other things, determines the economic health of the nation. Without "values education" (Dike, May 25, 2005) that involves "educating for character" and for good "moral values" has been linked to moral education and civic responsibility the economy may not grow and prosper. Without good character the labor force might lack the capacity to cooperate with other workers for increased productivity.

As Lickona (October 1992) notes in Educating for Character "respect and responsibility are the two foundational moral values" that a society should teach its citizens. Others include honesty, fairness, tolerance, prudence, self-discipline, helpfulness, compassion, cooperation, courage (the virtues of Aristotle) among other democratic values. All these would enable the people to create a viable humane society and to act "respectfully and responsibly." Taking responsibility for the things we do wrong as well as the things we do right is important for national development.

Part of the challenges facing the polity is that many Nigerian politicians do not practice ethical politics and their actions therefore do not add any values to the system. And the high ranking politicians are the main culprits as they exploit their position for personal gain and the society suffers. Lack of "ethical politics and values" (Dike, January 15, 2007) and politics of hate and destruction are creating economic and political hiccups in the society. More often than not Nigerian politicians would kill their opponents to gain access to or retain political power. Many Nigerian politicians practice the Machiavellian political prescription (Prince) and for that political assassinations litter the landscape.

One cannot over emphasize the importance of teaching values (Raths, et. al, 1979) necessary for good citizenship and law-abiding society. Unstable political environment is scaring investors off the society. For instance, the un-ending political feud between the President and his Vice President is undermining governance and crippling the economy (Vanguard, October 15, 2006). Crude politics, corruption, selfishness and greed have not allowed the political leaders to fix the institutions that are the commanding heights of the economy. Because of ineffective and inefficient institutional factors the economic restructuring efforts have not achieving its purpose because "asset stripping rather than wealth creations" (Lewis, April 2004) has been the game as the powerful oligarchy and special interest who are buying the nation in the name of privatization.

The regulatory agencies in the society are not free from political interference to operate effectively. Without allowing them unfettered hands to regulate the economy and Nigeria 's ‘fragile financial system' and institute good corporate governance the economy will not gain from the "power of productivity" (Lewis, April 2004; Dike, January 31, 2006). The role of productivity in determining living standards is important for nations as it is for individuals. Productivity has a lot to do with the workers and morale. Nigerian workers must be well trained and well motivated to work productively. A nation enjoys higher standards of living if the workers can produce large quantity of goods and services for local consumption and extra for export for revenue. According to Mankiw (2001) the productivity of a society is determined by many factors including physical capital, human capital, natural resources, and technological skills and knowledge.

Inadequate investment in physical capital, human capital and technological skills and knowledge hinders productivity and poverty has blossomed. Available economic indices show that about 70% of Nigerians live on less than one dollar per day (U.S. Department of State Reports on Human Rights Practice, 2005). The implication of this situation is that this many poor Nigerians will spend most their resources on feeding with little or nothing remaining to invest on the economy. Without boosting economic growth, and without empowering the people, the government's ill-planned and hastily implemented poverty alleviation programs may not reduce poverty in the society. For the nation to achieve sustainable economic growth and development the rural communities in which the majority of the people live must be developed.

Related to education is inadequate investment in technological development. In the midst of global electronic communications revolution in which electronic information flows across national boundaries no society would succeed in building a thriving political economy without being information technology conscious. Now, information technology almost determines the nature of every human activity; with it individuals and businesses now communicate much faster now more than ever. In spite of the presence of the GSM in the society Nigeria still lags behind in the integration of information technology in its daily activities. For reasons of technology, infrastructure, and socioeconomic status many Nigerians lack access to the Internet and electronic information to make informed decision on various issues affecting the polity. One must note, however, that modern technology is not the answer to all the problems facing the Nigerian economy; it is only part of the solution.

Alleviating the Challenges

Given the magnitude of challenges facing the economy it requires serious economic medicines to the spur the ailing Nigerian economy. As noted earlier Nigerian leaders are good at listing the challenges confronting the polity without providing the means to tackle the problems. As a result Nigeria 's socio-economic and political problems remain perpetually unresolved.

Fixing Nigeria 's ailing economy would require a holistic approach because as Rose-Ackerman (2004) notes a "dysfunctional government" is often "captured by wealthy interests." Effective institutional reforms are the key to improving the economy because poor governance and corruption, which are related, distort socioeconomic and political activities in societies. Corruption "is an institutional system in which rights are dissolved in exchange for gifts" (Robbins, 2000). Because law enforcement policies that deal with corrupt practices may not be effective without tackling the underlying institutional problems that are the root causes of the malaise. Efforts to improve governance must go beyond mere anti-corruption campaigns; the reform efforts, if well-planned and well-implemented, could have huge benefits with less disruption.

Unbundling corruption in the society would not be possible without effective checks and balances to monitor people's activities and with stiffer penalties for corrupt practices such as longer and tougher jail terms without option of fines. Nigeria operates a political system modeled after the United States where the legislative branch plays an important part in the formulation of laws and influences policy directions. But in Nigeria the executive branch has unlimited powers and literally determines who gets what, when, and how much.

To transform Nigeria 's democratic experiment into a true democracy and for the economy to prosper, there should be proper balance of power among the branches. The National Assembly and the Judiciary could only influence national decision-making process when, and if, they are independent of the influence of the presidency. The unlimited power tussles as seen from the current spate of impeachment of state governors, should be controlled through the institution of due process, because they impediment economic growth and development. One of the reasons the economy is prostate is that political activities in the society are not adding any value to the economy. Until the society destroys the authoritarian institutions that are choking the Nigeria 's nascent ‘democracy' domestic politics would remain authoritarian and chaotic with catalogue of human miseries.

To stimulate the economy the society must fix the dilapidated social infrastructure (roads and bridges, water, etc) truly reform the power sector because these are crippling economic activities. Poor business environment negatively impacts business activities and productivity plummets. One could venture to say that Nigeria 's economic problem is largely a productivity issue. To improve productivity the employers of labor in the society must motivate the workers for increased productivity. Nigeria seems to have the worst reward system in the world. Good governance and management are among the determinants of a nation's productivity. Shortage of "lead-manager" - Nigeria has more of "boss-managers"-is one of the deep-rooted impediments to higher productivity in Nigeria . Managers who use good rewards system get more from workers than managers who "boss" workers (Glasser 1992).

Effective reform and privatization of the power sector is critical in fixing the ailing Nigerian economy.The Guardian of November 5, 2006 noted that for the "reforms in the power sector to achieve its set objective a whopping $20 billion would have to be invested in the next 20 years." Because of inefficiency and corruption (the leaders have stolen billions of dollars of public money) government-run organizations swallow huge sum of public money without good economic return. It requires good management (and not money alone) to turn NEPA (now PHCN) and other public corporations into viable entities that would benefit the entire society.

Good schools are important part of the solution to Nigeria 's sociopolitical and economic problems. To enable the educational sector to produce and supply the required high level manpower and human capital for sustainable growth and development the educational system should be properly funded and reformed. The failure of the government to honor its agreement with ASUU has contributed to the unending teachers' strike actions and the disruption of the nation's academic calendar (Daily Trust, March 27, 2007; Vanguard, March 29, 2007). Without increased investment in human capital and creation of jobs, stable political environment; and without ensuring that the necessary factors of production are available at an affordable price, the economy will remain in shambles.

Ineffective social institutions are strangling the Nigerian economy (Dike, October-December, 2003; Sachs, June 2003; Edison , June 2003; Rogoff, June 2003; Acemoglu, June 2003). No economy will grow without functional and effective institutions. To improve the economy Nigeria should invest in social infrastructures. For instance, how can the private sector function without electricity, without access to financial capital, and without good road network, and without good operating environment? For the economy to function well the environment must also support small and medium scale firms that create employment. This will help reduce the rising youth unemployment and crime rates in the society. The nation should also improve access to clean water and improve sanitation (Rijsberman 2004) and invest bountifully in information technology. Economic growth should be tied to activities in non-oil sector and agricultural productivity because resources from the oil sector alone wouldn't grow the economy. The provision of functional institutions and necessary tools for production will improve the capacity utilization of industries and the economy. The nation's capacity utilization is currently poor. Sadly, as Charles Soludo noted recently, "The economy operates at only 25 per cent capacity" (Daily Independent, November 6, 2006).

The agricultural sector has been neglected leading to scarcity of food in the society. Nigeria needs "agricultural revolution" by applying new and advanced agricultural technologies and methods both in the urban and rural areas for increased food production. Commercialization of agriculture with commercial food processing is necessary because any nation worth its name must be able to feed her citizen to enable them function in the 21st century economy. It is time for a paradigm shift to unchain the impediments to economic diversification and economic growth in the society. The economic base should be diversified with more attention given to the federal government's ‘cassava initiative' (Vanguard, March 25, 2007).

Nigeria should restructure her revenue collection system because it has very low capacity to collect taxes from her citizens. States cannot function if they are unable to collect taxes and account for them. However, as Moore (1998) has noted if citizens are not taxed they have little or no incentive to hold the government accountable. Regulation of business activities for corrupt practices is also important. Some businesses get into corrupt practices in the society for survival because of the unfavorable economic environment. There is need to resolve the fundamental impediments facing the economy. Thus, Nigeria should institute reforms that could improve social institutions and governance, reduce corruption, increase productivity, and spur economic growth and development.

Good Governance and Effective Institutions: Commentary

How could the leaders accomplish the fundamental changes in the society? The activities of the government and its interaction with Nigerians are among the myriad challenges facing the society today. The nation's economic managers have toyed with varied socio-economic policies to guide the economy. And the latest major policy is the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) that appears to guide the nation's present economic reform agenda. However, the NEEDS strategy, which focuses mainly on creating wealth and employment, reducing poverty and values re-orientation (NEEDS Document, 2004), has not achieved the objectives because of poor governance, ineffective public institutions, decayed social infrastructures, and unfavorable political environment. However, are the nation's policies well-articulated? Real reform requires systematic policy initiatives (Rose-Ackerman (2004).

The scope of the challenges facing the economic enormous and because of that Nigeria has been whirling in a vicious circle! The economy still depends on oil and political condition around the globe and crises in the oil Niger Delta affects world's oil prices and Nigeria 's economic fortune. There is serious need to diversify the economy by giving proper attention to the non-oil sectors of the economy. This would be impossible without good leadership and effective institutional structures because as Dike (Oct -Dec 2003) and Dike (Nov-2006) have noted institutional deficiencies are strangling the Nigerian economy.

Sustainable macroeconomic policies are important for any healthy economy. Governance challenge in Nigeria is serious. The CBN noted in its Economic Report (August 2005) that aggregate money supply grew by 39.8% during the period as against the targeted growth of 15% for Jan 2005. Like other public institutions in the society, the apex bank is not free from political interference from "above". It has many times indicated its commitment to shoring up confidence in the Naira but it has had difficulties mopping up the excess liquidity in the system so as to tackle inflation, improve the Naira exchange rate, and to tame inflation. This is apparently because the economy still depends mostly on foreign material inputs.

  Nigeria cannot improve her global competitiveness with weak economy, weak currency, and poor quality products or lack of it. The official exchange rate hovers around N130/$1 as compared to N80/$1 of the late 80s! Worse still, epileptic electricity supply (this has worsened recently) is affecting economic activities in the society (BusinessDay, March 21, 2007); this renders the nation's economic reform efforts ineffective. The general appalling state of the environment has not permitted the private sector to really invest in power generation business. The consolidation program in the banking sector has not done any magic because there are still some fraudulent activities going on in the banking sector. Good monetary policy will only correct the anomalies in the nation with the assistance of effective institutions and social infrastructures. Weak fiscal institutions (poor tax collection system, etc) are not helping the economy.

Does the nation have the tools and political will to deal with the corruption challenge? Nigeria 's privatization program has not been effective because of political interference (corruption) and poor governance - both public and corporate. As Rose-Ackerman (2004) has noted without a well-functioning government, macro-economic policy would not be effective. Institutionalized corruption is a symptom of a dysfunctional state (ibd.). The more money Nigeria makes, the weaker the economy gets and the poorer the people become. Nigeria earned about N3.8 trillion from oil exports between January and August 2006 (Punch,Nov 9, 2006). However, the budgets of 2004, 2005 and 2006 were based on oil price of $25, $30 and $35 respectively, but the price of crude oil was $38.3 in 2004, and $55.3 in 2005, with a projected price of $ 68 in 2006 (BusinessDay, October 9, 2006).

As noted earlier, the price of crude oil is controlled by the forces in global politics. These monies have unfortunately gone down the sinkhole created by corruption. Despite the unending corruption scandals in the society the politicians are still preaching leadership accountability and transparency. Recently, the Pressrevealed how Andy Uba (former Chief Obasanjo's aide) used the presidential jet to haul about $170,000 in cash into the United States (Daily Trust, Editorial, November 10, 2006; TheNews, November 14, 2006). And instead of investing public funds on projects that could solve the nation's pressing problems Chief Obasanjo, as Otunba Fasawe noted recently during his PTDF testimony at the Senate, used billions of public money to fund his party's 2003 election (ThisDay, March 20, 2007).

It is unassailably true that Nigeria 's problems are not from the "harshness and the niggardliness of nature" (Keynes, May 1932) but the corrupt practices of the leaders that prevents the society from putting its abundant material and human resources into effective and productive use. In an article "Oil giant that runs on grease of politics" (San Francisco Chronicle, March 11, 2007) Nigeria was described as a rich nation floating on oil wealth "but almost none of it flows to the people." Apparently because of low level of education and poverty in the society moral and economic issues do not attract much public attention Nigerian politics. The people are not autonomous and educated enough to demand efficiency fro the leaders. However, the current political feud between the President and his Vice President is undermining governance and crippling the economy (Vanguard, October 15, 2006). Political democracy involves unhindered citizen participation and tolerates opposing views, abhors arbitrary rule and unilateral decision-making. But Nigerians are silenced by the powerful President who solely determines the direction of national policy that affect the entire economy.

Since 1999 Nigeria has witnessed an increasing build-up of authoritarian structures and institutions and human rights abuses have worsened. According to the U.S. Department of State Reports on Human Rights Practice (2005) released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor on March 8, 2006, Nigeria's human rights record is appalling. The present administration has been indicted for ‘abridging citizens' right to change their government; politically motivated and extrajudicial killings; use of excessive force; arbitrary arrest; interference in the judiciary; restrictions on freedom of speech, press, and assembly; and restrictions on workers' rights', among other violations(Ibid.). Thus, poor governance has combined with decayed social infrastructure and unstable political atmosphere to frighten off local and foreign investors from the economy.

For the economy to grow the nation must invest in social institutions and build permanent institutional structures to tackle the nation's problems as they arise. The society should invest in agriculture, health care, good network of roads, and efficient and reliable transportation system, and tame financial instability.

In spite of her oil wealth Nigeria is often mired in the dark. Poor electricity supply is a serious problem. NEPA (‘never expect power always') has transformed its name to PHCN (‘please hold candle now') yet power supply has not improved. Specifically, the nation should improve its electricity supply without which there will be no development. The society must also invest in information technology and expose the youths to emerging technologies early in life because technology and education play vital role in any sustainable economic growth and development process. And the society should control corruption; it has been noted that rampant corruption is a sign of institutional failure. All these affect economic activities, productivity and the health of the nation.

More important, to prevent further erosion of confidence in the democratization process the government should be transparent (transparency is negatively impacted by corruption and unnecessary politicization of issues). The legal system must be reformed to maintain or ensure the people's trust in its rulings. And Nigeria should reform its decision-making process and involve the citizens in government decision making process, and improve rural development program. The political leaders should allow an increase in democratic participation in opposition, and promote good governance, improve national security and tame social crises, and tackle hunger and diseases. Good governance and effective institutions are panacea to Nigeria 's socio-economic problems because other issues revolve around them.

Concluding Remarks

For Nigeria to build a strong foundation for true democracy and economic growth and development there is need for the society to promote ethical standards in politics, good social and moral values, accountability and transparency in governance. And for this to be possible the people should be politically educated and mature. This would enable the people to begin to question the sources of the wealth of the politicians' who become "very rich" immediately they step into political office. Many Nigerian politicians do not have ‘Clean Hands -they are corrupt! However, good governance reduces corruption, ceteris paribus!

According to Mahatma Gandhi "politics without ethical principles" is among the "social sins of humankind." It is not too late for the politicians (and the people) to modify their political behavior and learn to play ethical politics that add values to the system. If Nigeria wants to transit peacefully from the current democracy-experiment to democratic consolidation all stakeholders should adhere strictly to code of ethics and any person that goes contrary to the rules should be punished without fear or favor. There is really need for paradigm shift in the manner the nation is governed. Because as Albert Einstein has noted "the specific problems we face today cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them."

References and Notes

Acemoglu, Daron. (June 2003). "Root Causes: A historical approach to assessing the role of institutions in economic development." Finance and Development (F&D), Vol. 40, No.2

BusinessDay

(September 27, 2006). "Oil Price falls below $60 a barrel;" also see BusinessDay, Oct 9, 2006.

BusinessDay

(March 21, 2007) "Power outage: Small-scale business operators count cost"

BusinessDay

(March 21, 2007) "PTDF probe: Obasanjo, Atiku nailed, referred to Code of Conduct Bureau;" BusinessDay, March 21, 2007

Central Bank of Nigeria : Economic Report (August 2005)

Daily Trust

(March 27, 2007) "ASUU Continues Strike"

Daily Trust

(Editorial, Nov 10, 2006). "Presidential Plane and Money Laundering"

Daily Independent

(November 6, 2007). "Economy operates at 25% capacity-Soludo;"

Dike, Victor E. (January 15, 2007). "Need for ethical politics and values;" Daily Trust

Dike,Victor E. (Nov-2006).Democracy and Political Life in Nigeria (2nd edition), New York , Lincoln & Shanghai : iUniverse, Inc.

Dike, Victor E. (October 21 & 23, 2006) "The State of Education in Nigeria and the Health of the Nation;" Port-Harcourt Telegraph

Dike, Victor E. (January 31, 2006). "Economic restructuring and power of productivity (Daily Champion, January 31, 2006)

Dike, Victor E. (July 22-28, 2006) "Unreasoned policies and Nigeria 's underdevelopment" Weekly Trust

Dike, Victor E. (May 25, 2005). "Values Education and National Development;" Daily Trust

Dike, Victor E. (October –December, 2003). " Nigeria : Economic Growth and Institutional Factors." NESG Economic Indicators, Volume 9, No.4

Edison, Hali (June 2003). "Test the Links: How strong is the links between institutional quality and economic performance?" Finance and Development (F&D), Vol. 40, No.2

Eichengreen, Barry. (2004). "Financial Instability;" in Global Crises, Global Solutions (Bjorn, Lomborg (Edited, 2004). Cambridge University Press, pp.251-280

Frankena, J. (1973).

Ethics. New York : Prentice-Hall

Glasser, William. (1992). The Quality School: Managing Students without Coercion (Second, Expanded Edition).Harper Perennial

Keynes, John Maynard (May 1932). "The World's Economic Outlook;" The Atlantic Online - accessed December 4, 2006 - http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/budget/keynesf.htm

Lewis, William W. (April 2004). The Power of Productivity: Wealth, Poverty, and the Threat to Global Stability. University of Chicago Press

Lickona, Thomas (October 1992). Educating for Character: How Our Schools can Teach Respect and Responsibility. New York : Bantman Books (Paperback edition)

Mankiw, N. Gregory (2001); Principles of Microeconomics (2nd edition) Fortworth: Harcourt College Publishers

Moore, M (1998). Death without taxes: aid dependence, democracy, state capacity and aid in the fourth world. In M. Robinson and G. Whites (eds.), The Democratic Developmental state: politics and institutional design. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Nigeria National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS); See National Planning Commission, Abuja

Raths, L.E..; Harmin, M, & Simon, S. B. (1979). Values and Teaching (2nd ed.), Columbus , OH : Merrill

Rijsberman, Frank (2004). "Sanitation and Access to Clean Water;" In Global Crises, Global Solutions (Bjorn, Lomborg, Edited, 2004). Cambridge University Press, pp.498-527

Robbins, P. (2000). The Rotten Institution: Corruption in Natural Resource Management. Political Deography, 19, 423-443

Rogoff, Kenneth S. (June 2003). "Unlocking Growth in Africa ;" Finance and Development (F&D), Vol. 40, No.2

Rose-Ackerman, Susan. (2004)."Governance and Corruption;" in Global Crises, Global Solutions (Bjorn, Lomborg (Edited, 2004). Cambridge University Press, pp.301-344

San Francisco Chronicle (March 11, 2007). "Oil giant that runs on grease of politics"

Sachs, Jeffrey D. (June 2003). "Institutions Matter, but not for everything: The role of Geography and resources in development shouldn't be underestimated." Finance and Development (F&D), Vol. 40, No.2

Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. New York : Anchor Books

TheNews (Nov 14, 2006). "A Dollar Smuggling Shame"

The New York Times

(February 7, 2007). See Tom Zeller, Jr. "Is Nigeria 's Anti-Corruption Commission Corrupt?"

ThisDay (March 20, 2007). See Sufuyan Ojeifo "Fasawe: Obasanjo paid N 700m into Mofas Acct…"

UNESCO National Education Support Strategy (UNESS) For Nigeria: 2006-2015; accessed March 23, 2007: http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php

Vanguard

(March 23, 2007). " Nigeria : NAFDAC Evacuates 51 Trucks of Fake Drugs in Onitsha – Akunyili"

Vanguard

(March 25, 2007). See John Nwokocha "Taking cassava initiative to what level?"

Vanguard

(March 29, 2007) "ASUU Strike - NLC Urges FG to Resume Negotiation"

Vanguard

(October 15, 2006). "Obasanjo/Atiku Feud"

Victor E. Dike,

author of Democracy and Political Life in Nigeria (2nd edition), New York , Lincoln & Shanghai : iUniverse, Inc., Nov-2006.



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Re: Nigeria: Reform Efforts and the Unresolved Socio-Economic Problems
Son of the Delta posted on 04-06-2007, 09:12:12 AM
QUOTE:
Growing evidence shows that the crises bedeviling the nation's political economy could partly be attributed to the authoritarian tendencies of the leaders. For instance, one of key problems facing the Nigerian economy today is that almost every facet of the economy it is being controlled by the President. Growing evidence shows that he is in control of the on-going privatization process and controls the petroleum industry (including pricing of its products). He controls the elections process and determines who should take part in the process and he determines who is corrupt or not. The President decides whether or to implement the national budget, and often spends public fund without seeking approval from the National Assembly. The system lacks checks and balances and the people lack the freedom to challenge the autocratic tendencies of the President.



That is it ,that is all! Nigeria has been is what it is today because of Gen.Obasanjo`s poor leadership qualities.My feeling is that Nigeria`s chances of survival after such a brutal rule are next to zero.
Re: Nigeria: Reform Efforts and the Unresolved Socio-Economic Problems
Prince michael posted on 10-07-2010, 06:58:42 AM
i believe that Nigeria will fufil her purpose on earth. If Nigeria fails, the whole world wil fail,therefore believe in the transformation of this great nation!!! shalom!
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