The Genital Retraction Syndrome

 Missing or Shrinking Penis? No, It is Genital Retraction Syndrome

Irrational fear, ignorance, gullibility and mass hysteria are common variables in human societies, so also are primordial attitude, preliterate passions, and animalistic tendencies. But, as societies evolve -- helped along by education and global interactions that impacts their worldview -- such passions and tendencies and beliefs generally lessens, allowing for sensible thinking, rational acts, and science-based existence. A critical observation of modern societies seems to indicate two particulars: a correlation between very high levels of religiosity and irrational fear; and two, a corresponding association between low levels of formal education and irrationality. And no where in the world are the aforesaid more evident and ubiquitous than in the Indian subcontinent and in Africa .

Within the African continent, contagions of the intellect, mass hysterias and crippling urban legends are common. In one country after another, there are confounding tales of everything, i.e. magically induced shrinking brains, missing breasts, missing toddlers, and the missing or shrinking penis. And then there are tales of humans metamorphosing into dogs and cats and hyenas and other animals, or vice versa. Though there are no verifiable accounts of such transmutations, yet, there are Africans who swear by the Bible or the Quran of having witnessed such. There are no impeccable records of supernaturally-shrinking or missing penis or any of the legends that permeates the African society; nonetheless, some Africans go to their graves believing in such nonsensical tales.

In all instances, it has been a case of "somebody said," "my grandfather told us," or "my friend's friend" said or saw it. Such historical figments have been kept alive from one generation to another: wild accounts of animals doing the unimaginable; humans with supernatural ability of biblical proportion; stories of gods and ghosts in the African rivers and forests that rivals and even supersedes any Greek mythology. Sleep paralysis and alcohol induced apparitions that are believed to be the handiwork of witches. In most African societies, clinical depression and other mental challenges are not recognized as illnesses per se, but instead, are attributed and thought of as the handiwork of satanic forces. A typical African does not believe that the mind and the brain can sometimes play games on the human reality; it is a society where everything is possible and nothing is impossible.

Year after year, thousands of Africans are killed after being accused of witchcraft or some other so-called supernatural-crimes. All that is needed, in some cases, is for your enemy, a critic or a no-good family member to accuse you of witchery; punishment can be death, loss of reputation or bodily harm. Understandably, most of such accusations and activities are mostly limited to the poor and the poverty stricken. The aforesaid, like religious stupidity, is generally at its peak in times of rampant economic depression. And most African countries have been in a rut since the early years of their flag independence.

In 1997, there was the case of lynch mobs were "roaming the streets of Senegal hunting down foreigners believed to be sorcerers with the power to shrink men's penises. Allegedly, a handshake is all it takes." In January of the same year (1997) in Accra , Ghana , "seven sorcerers who were accused of grabbing penises were beaten to death by angry mobs. Victims allege that the sorcerers touched them to make their genitals shrink or, in some cases, disappear to extort cash for the promise of a cure." In Zimbabwe , in 1999, "a prostitute is accused of magically stealing a deadbeat client's privates, then returning them on payment." In 2001, "security forces were called onto the streets of Cotonou after a spate of horrendous murders connected with suspicions of witchcraft. All that is necessary to spark off such attacks is for a man to cry out in public: ‚ÄėMy penis has gone!' and the mob which quickly gathers attacks the first suspicious-looking passer-by."

The Nigeria of my youth was widespread with reports of the missing and shrinking penis, missing or shrinking brains and breasts and of course of what in the local parlance was called, Gbomogbomo. Alleged perpetrators were beaten and or killed. Thirty-eight or so years after I became conscious of these phenomenons, no one has been able to prove their veracity, and no one has ever been prosecuted. In March 2006, one of Nigeria's most prestigious newspapers, Daily Independent, reported that in Patani, Delta State "...three young men have allegedly lost their genitals in mysterious circumstances…the incident occurred in a restaurant after one of them allegedly gave change to a man after eating…"

Recently, the Times of Nigeria (Saturday May 24, 2008) reported that: "Motor bike Taxi drivers…gathered to protest against a client they accuse of using pigeons to steal penises…the suspect's last victim is a 35 year old Motor Bike Taxi driver named Musa Abubakar. The suspect denies all accusations. Abubakar claims Mohammed Ma'aji had stolen his "family jewels" with the help of a white "spiritual pigeon" hidden in his bag. This spiritual pigeon was wearing a small black tie around its neck…I drove this man to three different places. On our way back to our point of departure, he squeezed his legs tightly around me which made feel sick and weak immediately. I therefore stopped riding to have a look in my trousers and it was gone!" As a result, "The local transport unions of motorcyclists have threatened to take the case to court if the pigeon does not give back the missing penis to its owner."

Ironically, there are real instances of shrinking penises, but not in the same manner some ignorant and fearful persons think of it. The condition is generally referred to as Koro, or more scientifically, Genital Retraction Syndrome. According to the Journal of Urology (1995 Feb; 153 (2):427-8), "The koro syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterized by acute anxiety and a deep-seated fear of shrinkage of the penis and its ultimate retraction into the abdomen." For further information, see "Accusations of Genital Theft: A Case from Northern Ghana ." Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Volume 29, Number 1 / March, 2005. See also the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (Volume 5, Issue 3, 1999: 611-613). Apparently, ‚Äėthe shrinking or disappearing penis' is a pathological fear that the genitals are shrinking into the body, and this belief and feelings occurs only in certain cultures, particularly the Asian and African cultures.

In view of the frequency of the missing penis, missing body parts and the gbomogbomo rumors, fears and repercussions, why hasn't African governments and universities taken it upon themselves to educate the people about the scientific explanations for such occurrences? How many innocent people have to be killed or maimed before appropriate actions are taken? Even if various African governments and universities are indifferent to the matter, what about the media? After all, the media is there, not just to report on the news and on government and public sector activities, but to also enlighten and educate the masses. The Daily Independent, in concert with other media houses should embark on such laudable endeavor -- too many innocent people are loosing their lives over sheer lies and misconceptions. It is in the interest of the country to embark on such a campaign.

Sabidde@yahoo.com



1 2
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Enforcer posted on 05-30-2008, 10:43:50 AM

 Missing or Shrinking Penis? No, It is Genital Retraction Syndrome

Irrational fear, ignorance, gullibility and mass hysteria are common variables in human societies, so also are primordial attitude, preliterate passions, and animalistic tendencies. But, as societies evolve -- helped along by education and global interactions that impacts their worldview -- such passions and tendencies and beliefs generally lessens, allowing for sensible thinking, rational acts, and science-based existence. A critical observation of modern societies seems to indicate two particulars: a correlation between very high levels of religiosity and irrational fear; and two, a corresponding association between low levels of formal education and irrationality. And no where in the world are the aforesaid more evident and ubiquitous than in the Indian subcontinent and in
Africa
.


Within the African continent, contagions of the intellect, mass hysterias and crippling urban legends are common. In one country after another, there are confounding tales of everything, i.e. magically induced shrinking brains, missing breasts, missing toddlers, and the missing or shrinking penis. And then there are tales of humans metamorphosing into dogs and cats and hyenas and other animals, or vice versa. Though there are no verifiable accounts of such transmutations, yet, there are Africans who swear by the Bible or the Quran of having witnessed such. There are no impeccable records of supernaturally-shrinking or missing penis or any of the legends that permeates the African society; nonetheless, some Africans go to their graves believing in such nonsensical tales.


In all instances, it has been a case of "somebody said," "my grandfather told us," or "my friend's friend" said or saw it. Such historical figments have been kept alive from one generation to another: wild accounts of animals doing the unimaginable; humans with supernatural ability of biblical proportion; stories of gods and ghosts in the African rivers and forests that rivals and even supersedes any Greek mythology. Sleep paralysis and alcohol induced apparitions that are believed to be the handiwork of witches. In most African societies, clinical depression and other mental challenges are not recognized as illnesses per se, but instead, are attributed and thought of as the handiwork of satanic forces. A typical African does not believe that the mind and the brain can sometimes play games on the human reality; it is a society where everything is possible and nothing is impossible.


Year after year, thousands of Africans are killed after being accused of witchcraft or some other so-called supernatural-crimes. All that is needed, in some cases, is for your enemy, a critic or a no-good family member to accuse you of witchery; punishment can be death, loss of reputation or bodily harm. Understandably, most of such accusations and activities are mostly limited to the poor and the poverty stricken. The aforesaid, like religious stupidity, is generally at its peak in times of rampant economic depression. And most African countries have been in a rut since the early years of their flag independence.


In 1997, there was the case of lynch mobs were "roaming the streets of

Senegal

hunting down foreigners believed to be sorcerers with the power to shrink men's penises. Allegedly, a handshake is all it takes." In January of the same year (1997) in

Accra
,
Ghana

, "seven sorcerers who were accused of grabbing penises were beaten to death by angry mobs. Victims allege that the sorcerers touched them to make their genitals shrink or, in some cases, disappear to extort cash for the promise of a cure." In

Zimbabwe

, in 1999, "a prostitute is accused of magically stealing a deadbeat client's privates, then returning them on payment." In 2001, "security forces were called onto the streets of

Cotonou

after a spate of horrendous murders connected with suspicions of witchcraft. All that is necessary to spark off such attacks is for a man to cry out in public: ¬ĎMy penis has gone!' and the mob which quickly gathers attacks the first suspicious-looking passer-by."


The

Nigeria

of my youth was widespread with reports of the missing and shrinking penis, missing or shrinking brains and breasts and of course of what in the local parlance was called, Gbomogbomo. Alleged perpetrators were beaten and or killed. Thirty-eight or so years after I became conscious of these phenomenons, no one has been able to prove their veracity, and no one has ever been prosecuted. In March 2006, one of Nigeria's most prestigious newspapers, Daily Independent, reported that in Patani, Delta State "...three young men have allegedly lost their genitals in mysterious circumstances¬Öthe incident occurred in a restaurant after one of them allegedly gave change to a man after eating¬Ö"


Recently, the Times of Nigeria (Saturday May 24, 2008) reported that: "Motor bike Taxi drivers¬Ögathered to protest against a client they accuse of using pigeons to steal penises¬Öthe suspect's last victim is a 35 year old Motor Bike Taxi driver named Musa Abubakar. The suspect denies all accusations. Abubakar claims Mohammed Ma'aji had stolen his "family jewels" with the help of a white "spiritual pigeon" hidden in his bag. This spiritual pigeon was wearing a small black tie around its neck¬ÖI drove this man to three different places. On our way back to our point of departure, he squeezed his legs tightly around me which made feel sick and weak immediately. I therefore stopped riding to have a look in my trousers and it was gone!" As a result, "The local transport unions of motorcyclists have threatened to take the case to court if the pigeon does not give back the missing penis to its owner."


Ironically, there are real instances of shrinking penises, but not in the same manner some ignorant and fearful persons think of it. The condition is generally referred to as Koro, or more scientifically, Genital Retraction Syndrome. According to the Journal of Urology (1995 Feb; 153 (2):427-8), "The koro syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterized by acute anxiety and a deep-seated fear of shrinkage of the penis and its ultimate retraction into the abdomen." For further information, see "Accusations of Genital Theft: A Case from
Northern Ghana
." Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Volume 29, Number 1 / March, 2005. See also the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (Volume 5, Issue 3, 1999: 611-613). Apparently, ¬Ďthe shrinking or disappearing penis' is a pathological fear that the genitals are shrinking into the body, and this belief and feelings occurs only in certain cultures, particularly the Asian and African cultures.


In view of the frequency of the missing penis, missing body parts and the gbomogbomo rumors, fears and repercussions, why hasn't African governments and universities taken it upon themselves to educate the people about the scientific explanations for such occurrences? How many innocent people have to be killed or maimed before appropriate actions are taken? Even if various African governments and universities are indifferent to the matter, what about the media? After all, the media is there, not just to report on the news and on government and public sector activities, but to also enlighten and educate the masses. The Daily Independent, in concert with other media houses should embark on such laudable endeavor -- too many innocent people are loosing their lives over sheer lies and misconceptions. It is in the interest of the country to embark on such a campaign.



Sabidde@yahoo.com




..Read the full article
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Kelechi posted on 05-30-2008, 12:25:06 PM
This is a proper academic piece that will amongst many other benefits enhance awareness and put to rest the age-long erroneous belief steeped in voodoo, simple and mundane perceptions. Genital retraction syndrome certainly makes a whole lot of sense to me. Thanks Sabella.
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Truthsayer33 posted on 05-30-2008, 16:14:25 PM
Sabella,please don't rush to rubbish our people.Penile shrinkage is real but the cause is the mystery.One explanation is an imbalance in the male/female sex hormones.
See this extract from Google on 'Penile Atrophy'


While I am not a doctor, it is the testosterone/estrogen ration that
is important, and your symptoms scream "too much estrogen". The
problem with testosterone replacement therapy is that the body can
convert the testosterone into estrogen, particular if you carry a good
amount of body fat (and particularly abdominal fat). Fat tissue
converts testosterone into estrogen, so you have a vicious cycle:
higher estrogen leads to more fat deposition, which results in more
conversion to estrogen. Estrogen competes with testosterone for
receptor uptake.

Penile shrinkage is related to a shortage of (or a shortage of uptake
of) DHT, dihydrotestosterone. The irritability you describe is also a
classic case of whacked TER (testosterone/estrogen ratio). Fortunately
this can all be reversed. I recommend the Science of Sex book as by
far the most thorough and detailed discussion of all this. You need to
take measures to reduce your estrogen level (you need to get the fat
off!), the book has a great deal of information on this, and you need
to find a more responsive endocrinologist who understands this and/or
is willing to work with you until your TER is normal. Don't despair,
this is correctable if you are motivated. Best of luck.
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
posted on 05-30-2008, 17:12:34 PM
Hello Truethsayer33,
We are talking about 2 totally different conditions here. I was talking about ¬Ďtemporary vanish' you are talking about ¬Ďdiseased¬Öwasting away' condition. If I had penile atrophy in mind, I would have said so¬Ö
Sabella Abidde
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
TEchi posted on 05-30-2008, 17:54:28 PM
Sabella,
In South East Asia this condition is known as "Suo yang" (Koro, or genital retraction syndrome - GRS). It is one of the most colorful of the culture-bound syndromes and has accordingly received attention disproportionate to its actual number of cases. Genital retraction syndrome comes in two major varieties: the Malaysian/Indonesian version, ethnographically called koro and known locally under several names; and the Chinese version, found primarily in South China or in ethnic Chinese of South Chinese origin, where it is known by various local phrases meaning "shrinking penis". Numerous isolated cases of a similar syndrome have been reported worldwide.

Those afflicted with genital retraction syndrome believes that his or her genitals (or in the case of women, breasts and/or genitals) are retracting into the body. Such a belief would be frightening enough, but local tradition adds the warning that such an occurrence is usually fatal. The majority of persons with GRS are male; cases are reported to occur in women, at least in the Malaysian version, but are much more rare.

A typical episode will occur when a man goes to urinate in the cold or while emotionally upset (often due to guilt over masturbation or frequenting prostitutes, while concerned about his sexual performance, or after a fight with his wife) and observes that his penis is becoming smaller, a condition known medically as "hyperinvolution". Remembering the dangers of a shrinking penis, the man grabs his genitals before they can retract into his body, and calls for help. Imagine the horror of having to call someone to help you hold your private part.- eheh, Huuuuuumma!

If no one is around to help hold onto his penis, the individual may use mechanical devices to keep the penis from retracting, including cords, chopsticks, clamps, or small weights. Episodes of GRS may strike the same indvidual repeatedly, and epidemics of GRS have been noted, most famously the great koro epidemic in Singapore in 1967. Nawa for this one o!
The bulk of the literature has taken GRS as a purely subjective phenomenon, and much ink has been used in speculations on psychoanalytic explanations. In contrast to this psychoanalytic tradition, James Edwards (in Simons & Hughes, 1984:169-191) points out that there are physical events which could give rise to beliefs in GRS. Male genitals shrink on exposure to the cold, or in anxious and fearful emotional states. Penes may be displaced into the scrotum or abdominal cavity by injury, and can appear to be shrunken or partially retracted due to illness, obesity, or in victims of drowning. He also reports (p. 182) the strange case of a Russian man whose penis spontaneously retracted into his abdomen (it re-emerged by the next day, and did not repeat its disappearing act.) Several articles on koro appear in urological journals, and report that the syndrome is occasionally found in persons with anatomical abnormalities. Even though now more Africans or some backward Indian traditionalists may be reporting it now and then but GRS phenomenon is not peculiar to them.

These criticisms of the case analyses aside, GRS cases seem to be similar in many ways to the Western category of panic attack, with sexual elaborations. It seems probable that, in a culture where sexual anxiety is high and stories exist of death by genital retraction, a man in the right frame of mind could panic at the observation that his genitals are shrinking in response to cold or anxiety. Case studies have not typically reported actual shrinkage of penes, and the majority of damage to the individuals has resulted from over-enthusiastic attempts to restrain the penis from retracting. Therapy consists mainly of patient education on reproductive anatomy, and reassurance that the penis is not in danger of disappearing.

Look at this typical case study:

H.K.F., a male Chinese, aged 34...was at a cinema show when he felt the need to micturate. He went out to the latrine in the foyer, and as he was easing himself, he suddenly felt a loss of feeling in the genital region, and straightaway the thought occurred to him that he was going to get penile retraction. Sure enough, he noticed that the penis was getting shorter...He felt cold in the limbs, and was weak all over, and his legs gave way under him. So he sat on the floor, all this time holding onto his penis. About half an hour later, the attacks abated. He went to see a medical specialist and was prescribed some pills...At 24 years of age, he exposed himself to a prostitute, and was infected with gonorrhea, and since then he has abstained himself. He heard of shook yong from his friends and also heard about some fatalities during intercourse previous to the attack.
Treatment: He was vigorously reassured and given some talk on sexual anatomy. No further attack occurred.

-- from Gwee Ah Leng, "Koro--a cultural disease" In Simons, Ronald C.; and Hughes, Charles C. (eds.) (1985) The Culture-Bound Syndromes: folk illnesses of psychiatric and anthropological interest. (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing Company.) p. 156.

Well-attested individual cases of koro in China or SE Asia are relatively infrequent: Yap found 19, later researchers have compiled perhaps another 20 or 30. However, koro occurs in epidemics, in which hundreds or thousands of cases occur. Cheng (1996) reports that epidemics occur frequently in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula, Guangdong Province. There was a famous epidemic in Singapore in 1967, and a more recent and puzzling one in India. Edwards claims that traditional Chinese medical specialists dismissed the epidemic in Singapore as "not really suo yang", which raises the question for the semantic hair-splitter (which most of the culture-bound syndrome specialists are) of the ontological (and emic-etic) status of epidemic koro as a CBS.

The Chinese version is situated within a larger set of concerns about the balance between male and female energies (yang and yin) within the human body. Chinese medicine sees most illnesses as symptoms of imbalance rather than as discrete entities. The term suo yang, literally translate as "shrinking penis", and represent not so much a disease as a symptom of extremely deficient yang. Thus it makes sense within the system for extreme cold (very yin) to overpower the yang in a vulnerable man and cause his penis (the symbol of his yang) to retract.

Genital retraction syndrome, usually under the name koro, is one of the most published of the culture-bound syndromes. The literature is conflicted, however. As with many of the culture-bound syndromes, some authors question the frequency of cases and accuracy of reporting, as well as the conflation of Malaysian koro with Chinese suo yang.
The difference with this phenomenon in Nigeria or African for that matter is that people use it to extort money from their neighbors and to accuse them of unimaginable witchcraft.
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Myne Whitman posted on 05-30-2008, 18:21:53 PM
Sabella and Techi,

Thanks for the very informative articles. We had a case of missing penis during my NYSC and since then I had had loads of questions. Most of them have now been answered. Cheers...
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Ttonjo posted on 05-31-2008, 01:16:51 AM
"In view of the frequency of the missing penis, missing body parts and the gbomogbomo rumors, fears and repercussions, why hasn't African governments and universities taken it upon themselves to educate the people about the scientific explanations for such occurrences? How many innocent people have to be killed or maimed before appropriate actions are taken? Even if various African governments and universities are indifferent to the matter, what about the media? After all, the media is there, not just to report on the news and on government and public sector activities, but to also enlighten and educate the masses. The Daily Independent, in concert with other media houses should embark on such laudable endeavor -- too many innocent people are loosing their lives over sheer lies and misconceptions. It is in the interest of the country to embark on such a campaign."

@Abidde:

Thanks for a well researched and informative article. I do hope that the 'media' in particular will wake up to their responsibilities by using their mediums to educate the people to desist from taking the law into their own hands and stop the public lynching of innocent people.
Especially the issue of 'gbomogbomo' ('child kidnapping'), whereby a ten year old boy was accused last year somewhere at Surulere, Lagos; and before you could say Ben Johnson, the poor soul was lynched to death in public.
It is a terrible thing to happen to anyone, irrespective of their crime or lack of it. What happen to the saying: 'innocent until proving guilty?'
How about the press using this opportunity to publish your well informative article in their various publications for a start?
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Ttonjo posted on 05-31-2008, 01:18:50 AM
"In view of the frequency of the missing penis, missing body parts and the gbomogbomo rumors, fears and repercussions, why hasn't African governments and universities taken it upon themselves to educate the people about the scientific explanations for such occurrences? How many innocent people have to be killed or maimed before appropriate actions are taken? Even if various African governments and universities are indifferent to the matter, what about the media? After all, the media is there, not just to report on the news and on government and public sector activities, but to also enlighten and educate the masses. The Daily Independent, in concert with other media houses should embark on such laudable endeavor -- too many innocent people are loosing their lives over sheer lies and misconceptions. It is in the interest of the country to embark on such a campaign."

@Sabella:

Thanks for a well researched and informative article. I do hope that the 'media' in particular will wake up to their responsibilities by using their mediums to educate the people to desist from taking the law into their own hands and stop the public lynching of innocent people.
Especially the issue of 'gbomogbomo' ('child kidnapping'), whereby a ten year old boy was accused last year somewhere at Surulere, Lagos; and before you could say Ben Johnson, the poor soul was lynched to death in public.
It is a terrible thing to happen to anyone, irrespective of their crime or lack of it. What happen to the saying: 'innocent until proving guilty?'
How about the press using this opportunity to publish your well informative article in their various publications for a start?
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
Aguabata posted on 05-31-2008, 11:24:28 AM
this is social evolution in action, thanks sabidde
Re: The Missing and Shrinking Penis
BISIKAY posted on 06-01-2008, 09:16:05 AM
S ABIDDE

Well done!!! May your brainpower never diminish, lai lai.

This kind of article has long been required to reconstruct the African mind: we have too many SUPERSTITIONS retarding our progress as a race, call it the poverty of the mind. and you are getting close to the problem. WITCHCRAFT is used to explain all unexplained phenomena in the land of primivity.

The issue you have specifically raised is calles JAKO-JAKO, the penis-snatcher, among the YORUBA of SouthWestern Nigeria. I was directly involved in one very very sad episode in 1979 relating to this Jako-Jako palava. I was a teacher in a Teacher Training College in Ipetumodu, near Ile Ife, now Osun State. On a particular Sunday afternoon reports reached us on the college campus that one of the college boy's penis had been "snatched" presumably by two men at the town centre. Before long we had all ran to the police station where the two accused men, one called MOSHOOD and the other KARIMU, ( if my memory serves me well still!), BISI, the student who claimed his penis hadbeen snatched, his father, townsfolks, motley of boys and girls had all gathered.

It than transpired that BISI had been taken to the University Teaching Hospital at Ife to seen clinical assessment and intervention on the purportedly snatched penis. Let me clearly explain in line with prior writers here that the penis, and no one's penis, was ever TRULLY, physically snatched, stolen, removed, missing. No, it is only that the so called penis had merely RETRACTED, shortened, shrunk. That much was the case in out IPETUMODU case study. The doctor at the hospital even showed the boy, his father anf the police escort his own penis, and explained that penises have a queer knack for shrinking on their own, especially when the weather is chilly, etc, etc.
Anyway, unfortunately the matter did not end there. Upon returning from the hospital, rather than dispel the nasty rumours bout the snatching of Bisi's penis, it was simply announced that the two accused has merely RETURNED the boy's penis.

In the end the crowd went wild, tore down the police station, and the two men were hached to death!!!

Suffice to say a lot happened after the dastard act of the mob which led to the college being held culpable and liable in the murders and the violence and the destructions that followed. Those will be for another time.

I have carried the burden and the shame of the JAKO-JAKO tragedy with me ever since.
Now, I am able to relate the events to you all and support the need for the se-superstutionalisation of the African mind and landscape. I hope we have somehow now begun.

I thank all for your contributions

BISIKAY, PhD, LONDON, UK
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