This concludes the article "A preliminary Policy Proposal For Restructuring Components of the Nigerian State ", the first part (sections 1 to 4) of which can be found at ;.....http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/forum/articles-comments/32565-preliminary-policy-proposal-restructuring-components-nigerian-state-part-i.html

Section Five commences as follows.....

5.0 The Compulsory National Citizenship Service (CNCS) Program ÔÇô A proposal for security and social reform.

The CNCS program as already mentioned and as is worth reiterating is a program that is being proposed as a policy vehicle for total reform and security transformation of the Nigerian Society. Again, it is reiterated that this program will be mandatory for all members of Nigerian Civilian populace, as explained in section 5.01.1.2.1 below. The reform that is sought is primarily ideological but is also expected yield practical results of security as well as National development and should transform both the Civilian and Military establishments as enumerated below.

5.01 The goals of the CNCS

The goals of the CNCS, with regard to the civilian populace would be;

  • High but measured Integration of the Civilian populace with the military
  • A citizenry that respects but does not inordinately fear uniformed personnel and thus, a citizenship that cannot be intimidated nor oppressed
  • A citizenry that is capable of rising to the defense of itself as well as to the defense of the Nation in the face of threats, both from internal and external sources. Poignantly and to the point, a civil populace that is able and willing to resist and put down attempted military overthrow of civilian government
  • A citizenry that will be helpless in the face of election rigging and which will be able to organize and sustain resistance to attempt at electoral fraud
  • A populace that does not suffer from a crisis of citizenship
  • A citizenry that is socially responsive , possessing desired qualities such as leadership , followership resourcefulness and other virtues

Similarly, the effects on the Military establishment would include:

  • Measured but high integration of the Military establishment with the civilian population
  • Truncation of the inordinate sense of superiority in the Armed Forces and putting of a long overdue stoppage "Bloody Civilian" syndrome
  • Establishment of an Armed Forces and Police Force that is capable of understanding that its primary allegiance is to the people , rather than to any particular government
  • Abolishment the Nigerian Armed Forces as it is currently known and its  replacement with a core of professionals dedicated to serving the Nigerian people, with officers and rank who no longer see themselves as superior or apart from the civil populace
  • Minimization or elimination of the possibility of Military Coup d'├ętats in Nigeria as a result of reorientation of and integration of the Nigerian military into the Civilian society and vise-versa

    • A military that would be able to defend the sovereignty of the State, but would lack both the will and the capacity to undermine it
    • A force with a deep abhorrence for Military coups and dictatorship

5.02 The CNCS, the Implementation Plan:

It is reiterated that the CNCS is proposed to be a mandatory national service for all members of the Nigerian society at all tiers from ages 5 to 45.

The reasons for and the goals of a program such as the CNCS has been articulated in section 4 of this article. In the following sections, a method for implementation will be espoused.  .

5.02.1 CNCS ; the components

The CNCS program will consist of two components to be known respectively as the Youth and Adult components. The adult component would amongst other goals, seek to integrate the citizenry with the Armed Forces and vise versa, while the Youth component would have prepared the youth for the adult component.

5.02.1.1 The CNCS Youth Component

It has been acknowledged that the educational system of Nigeria is inadequate and does not produce adults sufficiently equipped with the social and intellectual capital required to build a self sustaining nation. In this section, the educational reforms proposed in section 2 are tied to the CNCS program.

  • The Youth component of the CNCS is to be designated the Compulsory National Youth Citizenship Service( CNYCS)
  • Ages for participation in the CNYCS shall be from 5 to 16 years
  • The vehicle for implementation shall be the that which was proposed in this policy paper in section 2 (Mandatory Public Funded K-12 Education).

    •  Starting from Grade one (1), the CNYCS shall be implemented through the schools as an important but specialized part of the Nigerian K-12  educational system which shall be taught within normal school hours as well as progressively requiring hours of participation , outside of the normal school day period
    • In the CNYCS program, school children shall be progressively exposed to and instructed in simple but Afrocentrically centered ideals in the areas of civics, politics, history ,social and economic concepts as related to Nigeria and Africa.
    • The essentiality of national service in adulthood shall be imprinted on the consciousness of the Nigerian child. .
    • Duty to the nation shall be stressed as one of the highest, if not the highest of all possible ideals

      •  Each child shall be taught to revere and anticipate to serve the State in one capacity or the other.
      • Service to the state shall be taken as granted
  • The organizations and structures which have historically affected the Nigerian nation and Africa, especially in an adversarial manner shall be studied and taught to the Nigerian youth.
  • Students within the Grades 1 to 3 shall be exempt from after regular school hours CNYSC education. CNYSC education for this category of students shall take place for only one hour per day, per week respectively within the normal school period of Monday to Friday.
  • For students within Grades 4 to 6, in addition to 5 hour per week formal tutorship during the periods of Monday to Friday, implementation of CNYCS attendance and education shall require these students, to attend at least one weekend a month , for a period of half of a regular school day, to be devoted  exclusively to CNYCS education
    • Attendance in the program as already mentioned will be mandatory.
    • Regardless of above, the State shall nevertheless reward attending youths with a token stipend designed to demonstrate goodwill and paternal interest which the State has in all its youth.
      • Such stipend shall also be sufficient to assist in defraying transportation costs and  be deemed to compensate parents for the deprivation of time with their youths  
    • In addition to the weekend attendance, it is expected that once a year, during the school vacation, school children shall spend a week or two, depending on grade in hostel/camps run by the school on behalf of the State .
      • During this extended or camped CNYCS educational time, students within the K7 ÔÇô K9 shall be required to go on excursive camping for not more than a week, outside their city or residence
      • Students within the G10-G12 range shall be expected to go on excursive activities which will take them outside their States of residence.
      • Visits shall be to institutions , industries and organizations which shall include military establishments.

Upon completion of the CNYSC, the student shall be eligible for and prepared for participation in the adult component of the CNSC .

5.02.1.2 The CNSC the Adult component

The CNCS shall have an adult component to be known as the CNCS .

Furthermore the CNCS shall have three sub components to be known as the:

  • National Youth Service Corps (NYSC)
  • Informally  Educated and Trained Corps (IETC) ; and
  • Ongoing Citizenship Service (OCS)

Further explanations of the above are detailed in section 5.02.1.1.1 below, however the perquisite for participation in the CNSC shall be mandatory public funded K-12 education into which the youth component, otherwise known as the  CNYCS  explained in preceding section shall have been inculcated and in which the Youth must have succeeded.

  • The adult component shall be for
    • Post secondary school age Nigerians within the ages of 17 to 45
    • The present NYSC scheme shall be absorbed into this program
    • The CNCS shall be affiliated with and integrated into the Police and Armed Forces which shall be radically reformed to accommodate  and also participate in the CNCS.  
    • Every member of the CNCS shall have a Military  rank and shall demand and be entitled to full privileges of such rank vis-├á-vis the existing regular professional military and Police
    • Every member of the CNCS shall be encouraged and urged to undergo military training but shall not be compelled to do so.
    • The purpose of military training as part of the CNCS is to prepare the member for the OCS , members of which shall have the right to bear arms.
    • The OCS is the final and most important segment of the CNSC as elucidated in section 5.01.1.2.1.  Members of the OCS, should they choose, would be expected to if necessary participate in the enforcement of security as discussed in 5.01.
      • Thus, there shall be  non combatant occupations in the Police and Armed Forces specifically designed to accommodate the CNCS
      • Every member of the regular armed and Police forces shall be made to recognize, affirm or swear fidelity to the CNCS
      • Every member of the regular Armed Forces and Police force shall also be made to participate in the CNCS as mandated in section 5.01.1.2.1
      • While the CNCS shall be integrated into and become part of the Nigerian Police and Armed Forces, however, not every  member of the CNCS shall be combatant nor required to belong to combatant occupation or profession , nor  be required to bear arms
      • Citizens who expressly do not wish to  belong to combatant occupation nor bear arms may be excepted upon request on grounds of;
        •  conscientious objection (religion, ethics e.t.c)
        •  compassionate exception (bereavement, health, e.t.c)
    • Code of conduct for and rules of engagement for CNCS shall be further developed, however the guiding principles shall be that in the absence of an existing State of war, a declaration of war or State of Emergency it shall be an offense for any member of the military , regardless of rank to assault, strike, manhandle or incapacitate any other member unless authorized by a court of law
    • It shall be an offense for any member of superior rank to issue a concupiscent, or unlawful order to a junior
    • A junior rank shall have the right to refuse an unlawful order and must report such to the judicial branch of the military for examination
    • A superior rank shall also make a report of refusal of an order deemed by a junior rank to the judicial branch of the military for examination.

5.01.1.2.1 Further explanations of the role and composition of the  CNCS

The adult component of the CNCS shall be delineated into at least 3 sections as graphically depicted below:

The National Youth Service (NYSC) component of the CNCS

  • This shall be a route for participation in the CNCS by members of the civil populace on the path of formal education. At the end of formal educational training, they shall be called up for national service through the NYSC which shall be amended to fall in line with the objectives of the  CNCS

The Informal Educational Training (IET) component of the CNCS

  • This shall be for members of the Nigerian citizenry who are not academically formally trained to the post secondary and tertiary educational levels. This means industries, buisnesses, enteprises and institutions shall be able to request for secondment of all trades and craft persons and the Nigeria State shall be able to call up and access services from all sectors of the Nigerian citizenship and economy.. 
  • At the end of whatever training period such members may have chosen to undertake, they shall be called up for national service in their respective trades and assigned to the nearest unit of the CNCS.
  • Similarly to the NYSC, IET members shall be required to spend a year on national service outside their States of residence
  • They shall be seconded to serve in various sectors of the Nigerian economy and States upon request by prospective employers and at the request of the State.

Ongoing Citizenship Service (OCS) Component of the CNCS

  • This is the most important component of the CNCS which shall be entered into upon completion of the IET or NYSC component of the CNCS
  • The OCS will be an ongoing commitment until the age of 46
  • The members of the OCS shall be encouraged to bear arms and engage in military training, but shall not be compelled to do so.
  • A section of the OCS shall be dedicated to members of the OCS who wish to bear arms and shall be call the armed OCS
  • Members of the regular military and Police forces are to train with the OCS .
  • Further more, members of the OCS are obligated to set up citizenship and responsibility training programs for the Police and Armed Forces
    • Police and Military Forces are to participate in regular activities set up by the OCS as explained in section 5.01.1.2.3
  • A schematic summary of the CNCS is as shown below:

Age/Grade

Requirement

Time(day/month

Component

G1 to G3

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training

One hour/ week

CNYCS

G3 to G6

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training

Five hour/week + 4hr wkd /month

G7 ÔÇô G9

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training

Five hour/week + half wkd /month +1 week camp

G10-G12

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training

Five hour/week + half wkd /month +3 weeks camp

IET

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training with paramilitary Option

1 year

CNCS

NYSC

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training with paramilitary Option

1 year

OCS till age 45

Non Miltary Citizenship Responsibility Training with both paramilitary and full military option

Ongoing. Minimum , half weekend per month

46 and above

Exemption from military, and Paramiliary activities but not Civic responsibilites and Training

Onegoing, Minimum, half weekend per year

5.01.1.2.2 Further explanations of the role of the armed members of the CNCS

    • The CNCS shall be outside the chain of command of the Police and Armed Forces.
    • However on occasions, especially for purposes of internal security, the CNCS may be required to take control of the Police and Armed Forces through its highest echelon which shall be the OCS.
    • The OCS will be composed mostly of volunteer adult civilians, who have successfully completed lower tiers of the CNCS, namely the CNYCS and the NYSC or IET components of the CNCS. However there will still be some full time members for administrative and security purposes.
    • The Police and Armed Forces shall normally, not be under the chain of command of the OCS but on occasions of internal national emergency, the Police and Armed Forces will be required to be subordinate to the OCS.
    • At the state level, each state government shall have a CNCS governing board. Decisions pertaining to the CNCS shall be made by recommendations of the board , through the board chair of the board to the State Governor who shall be bound to implement the recommendations of the board.
      • The OCS and CNCS shall be tentatively headed in each State by the State Governor and deputized by the chair of the board.
      • Only in the absence of the board, may the State Governor make decisions for the CNCS and such decisions may be reversed by the board at a latter date.
      • In essence, the State Governor , though head of the CNCS is not in absolute control of the CNCS in order to check possibility of abuses of power and shall be subject to ongoing review by the legislative arm of the government, which may, by simple majority or two third majority, ammend or remove control of the CNCS from under the control of the executive in favor of the neutral body to be constituted from the governing board of the OCS, in accordance with modalities to be further developed..
      •  Also, the CNCS is to be an organization to function beyond the scope of any one state, hence constitutional means such as granting of review and veto authority to other arms of government shall be explored to ensure that the exective branch of government is unable to abuse or use the CNCS for personal political gain
    • At the National level , control of the OCS shall revert to the executive branch of the Federal Government of the Nigerian State, subject to limitations , similar to those imposed on the executive at the state level by the legislative arm of governent 
    • Periodically, Civilian members of the armed OCS will be fully co-opted and transferred fully into the Regular Police and Military Forces. They shall be made to undertake any additional required training needed to function in such capacity.
    • As corollary to the above, members of the regular Police and Armed Forces shall periodically be disengaged from the Regular Police and Armed Forces and subsequently transferred to full time membership of the armed OCS.
    • Members of the armed OCS will be well trained to actively engage in military and weapons training, as well as to bear arms. They shall have the right to bear residentially sanctioned and registered category of arms which shall be suitable, especially for home defensive purposes.
    • Each local government shall have at least one armed OCS member of rank equal to that of a GOC in the regular military
    • Members of the armed OCS shall be affiliated to and seconded to each and every Police station and military detachment and command in the State
    • Each Police station in the State shall have at least two armed OCS designated members who shall be superior in rank to the most senior member of the Police force at that Police Station.
    • The designated armed OCS members attached to each Police or military Station shall reserve the right to show up at any Police or Military Station at designated and undesignated periods with as many OCS members as they wish, to inspect the performance of the Nigerian Police Force and Armed Forces
    • Thus in a state of emergency or during periods of threats, to the State, the chief executive of a Nigerian State may  and will  directly call up or mobilize the civilian populace through the CNCS , guided by the OCS to restore order within the State.
      • Under such circumstances, the Standard Operating Proceedure of the OCS shall be thus:
        • The senior OCS members shall call up and mobilize the armed OCS members under his jurisdiction and either  take control of the nearest Police Station within his jurisdiction or prevent and impede insurrection from emanating from such quarter
        •  If the OCS is successful in taking control of the Police station under his jurisdiction, the OCS shall have the right to issue weapons suitable for more militarily intensive operations. Under such conditions, the OCS shall be mandated to put down insurrection within any quarter
        • If the local OCS chapter is unsuccessful in taking control of the Police stations under his jurisdiction, the OCS is still duty bound to resist with weapons already in his possession.

5.01.1.2.3 Further explanations of the role of the Armed Forces  and Police in the CNCS

The purpose of this section is to reiterate and highlight some of what has been enumerated regarding the role of the Armed Forces and Police Force vis-à-vis the proposed CNCS

  • The members of the Police and Armed Forces are to be regarded as part of the Citizens of Nigeria and not a breed apart, separate from or superior to the citizenry.
  • Thus the Police and Armed Forces must not be exempt from participation in the CNCS
  • The Police and Armed Forces while normally maintaining a separate chain of command will be and must be subordinate to the Civilian authorities at all times, and especially in times of emergency or internal crisis through the chain of command of the CNCS.

    Thus,

    • All members of the Police and Armed Forces of Nigeria will be required to publicly and periodically affirm , verbally and in writing, fidelity, allegiance and subordination to the civil populace and authority.
    • The implication of the affirmation of allegiance would be that in the event of actions  by members of the Police and Armed Forces which contravene affirmations already made, the lawful consequences and repercussions which would be enforced at the earliest opportunity, with no time expiration would include, prosecution to the fullest extent of the law. This prosecution would take place irrespective of any latter laws such ones may have subsequently promulgated in order to insulate themselves from the effects of the provisions of this policy paper.
    • For avoidance of doubt, this means that even successful overthrows of lawfully constituted civil order would still be viewed as treasonable acts and perpetuators are not guranteed immunity from the consequences of their actions, merely on account of success
  • Periodically, members of the Police and Armed Forces will be removed entirely from within the Regular Police and Armed Forces echelon to be fully transferred either permanently or temporarily to the CNCS upon recommendation of the CNCS to the Executive branch of the Nigerian State.
  • Similarly, members of the OCS shall periodically be coopted into full service within the Police and Armed Forces
  • Further more, members of the Police and Miltary Forces are to participate periodically, regularly and on an ongoing basis in training programs of the CNCS to be set up and supervised by members of the OCS arm of the CNCS
  • . Promotion and career advancement within the Police and Armed forces shall be contingent upon satisfactory participation in the CNCS. This may be monthly training classes of up to five or more hours with a view to achieve the following
      • Demonstration of community service to the civil populace in a non militaristic capacity. This could take the form of visitation to hospitals, schools, homes e.t.c within the community in an attempt to get to know the community
      • Regular and ongoing  public and recorded affirmation of allegiance to the Civil authority of the Nigerian State.
      • Attendance of community and civics courses under civilian tutorship and oversight

6.0 The Right to bear arms and the prevention of uncontrolled arms proliferation

A legitimate fear raised by the right of Citizens to bear arms is fear that weapons may fall into possession of criminal elements or proliferate uncontrollably through the Nigerian society, thereby causing an escalation in violence and an orgy of criminality.

Safeguards will be put in place to forestall the above eventuality.

  • The ability and right of ordinary Nigerians to bear arms is only to be through a structured and controlled program.
    • It should also be clear that such an ability and right is not absolute, unchecked nor unsupervised and will be through participation in the armed OCS portion of the CNCS which will control not only the access and distribution of arms , but will also require that individual account on a regular basis , for the amount of ammunition in their possession.
  • Ammunition and arms will be rationed and regulated to licensed individuals who must account regularly and periodically for any unauthorized usage of ammunition.
  • Expending of ammunition will only be sanctioned and authorized by recognized activities of the OCS, such as for training purposes.
  • Any unauthorized expenditure must be reported within 24 hours or as soon as practicable upon pain of legal sanction.
  • Normally, no one who does not participate in the OCS will not be allowed to bear arms nor granted access to weapons or munitions..

    However, exceptions may be made for members of the Nigerian Citizenry who wish to bear arms but do not belong to the armed OCS. Such members while not being members of the armed OCS will however be subject to screening by the OCS to determine eligibility to bear arms under supervision of the OCS and such members shall not  normally be:

 ┬Ě - Conscienseous objectors

 ┬Ě - Health impaired persons

7.0 Conclusions

Although already mentioned in the opening paragraph, it is worth reiterating that the proposals made in this paper are neither exhaustive nor absolute. At the least, they are intended to serve as outline of principles that should be adopted towards structural reforms which as a matter of urgency, though limited to the identified areas, will still in one form or the other impact all spheres of Nigerian life.

It would not be wrong to conclude that one of the results of the implementation of this policy proposal would be the civilianization of the Military and Armed Forces as well as the militarization of the Civilian populace. It is believed that for the Nigerian society to be rapidly reformed to bring about the desired changes, this effect is unlikely to be avoidable

Resistance to the policy proposal is expected and anticipated especially from those who have the power to obtain benefits from the chaos which typifies the current Nigerian social order. Even those who are powerless and who do not directly benefit from the Nigerian status quo may oppose these policy proposals on various ground, including opposition to what may be seen as compulsion. I would ask that they consider that we only get out of a system, that which is commesurate to what we put in. Too many Nigerians are invested in the idea of obtaining something for nothing and perhaps Nigeria gives nothing to us, because we similarly give nothing to her.

To those who are already benefiting from the disorder in the Nigerian public sphere and those who have the power to effect changes, one will  remind them that that change can and will come to the Nigerian society either willingly by our planned and controlled efforts or in some more catastrophically and unplanned and unpredictable means if we do not take steps to assure change in the direction in which we desire. Therefore, it is hoped that it may be possible that such ones may understand , that policies being proposed herein, insofar as they are designed to gurantee, as much as possible, the continued existence of Nigeria as a more propserous, stable and egalitarian society, are ultimately, in the long run, favourable to their own self interests.

Footnotes

Katsina, M; 2008;

Critical Analysis Of The Nigerian Defense Policy in the Fourth Republic

http://www.scribd.com/doc/9674386/A-Critical-Analysis-of-the-Nigerias-Defence-Policy-in-the-Fourth-Republic-19992007

 

Imobighe T.A; 1984,

Chasing the shadow; The illusory Battle for law, order and security in Nigeria

( Nigeria ÔÇô a Republic in ruins , Zaria ABU press )

.

C.G Woodson ;1933

Miseducation of the Negro

http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/misedne.html